1a – Fill in the gaps

From the following list, use each word only once to complete the sentences below.
Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word:

arbitrary (adj), assign (v), context (n), criterion (n), data (n), denote (v), devise (v), formulate (v), ignore (v) impact (n), similar (adj), summary (n), usage (n), vertical (adj)

1. Although not exactly identical, the two books are so _____________________ to each other that one author must have copied much of his book from the other.

2. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and _________________ new policies.

3. It is often possible to guess the meaning of a word from the other words around it — that is to say, the _____________________.

4. In 1990, the British researcher Tim Berners-Lee _____________________ the first browser, and so paved the way for the development of the World Wide Web.

5. In newspapers, the layout of the columns is _____________________, while the rows run across the page horizontally.

6. The rise in the number of deaths from AIDS has had a very significant _____________________ on people’s sexual behaviour.

7. The _____________________ of drugs has increased significantly in spite of more severe penalties such as longer prison sentences.

8. Students should not try to write down everything they hear in a lecture, but just make a _____________________ of the most important points.

9. We use the term “class” to _________________________ groups of people who share the same social and economic backgrounds.

10. In one case, a murderer may go to prison for life, while another may be set free: it all seems completely __________________.

11. The new journalist was ____________________ to researching the election promises of the main political parties.

12. Before we can judge a government’s success, we have to decide the ____________________, such as unemployment, defence or taxation.

13. One student failed because he completely ________________________ the instructions on the paper, although they appeared at the top of every page.

14. Market researchers use _________________________ such as people’s spending patterns as well as information about age and occupation to decide on the most effective marketing strategies.

(Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. )


1b – Choose the right word

In each of the sentences below, decide which word in bold is more suitable.

1. During the 1970’s and 1980’s, it became increasingly evident / visible that companies in the West were uncompetitive.

2. The United Kingdom makes / publishes more books than any other country.

3. There has been a major road accident, involving / including 23 cars and 16 lorries.

4. On the basis of the latest survey, we know that most people have a very negative / bleak view of politicians and their parties.

5. In many parts of the world, people are becoming more worried about the danger of pollution and its effect on the environment / ecology.

6. Education experts from France travelled to Japan to evaluate / judge the secondary school system there.

7. Although it is not very big, the library has an excellent range / variety of books, journals and other resources for study.

8. Increasingly, the design of buildings is being adjusted / modified to allow easier access for disabled people.

9. The lack of extra student accommodation restricted / narrowed the expansion in student numbers which the university was planning.

10. Many students acquire / derive a great deal of enjoyment and satisfaction from their time at university.

11. Although the world is getting warmer slowly, the increase in temperature varies / fluctuates from country to country.

12. Following the bank raid, the police followed / pursued the robbers but were unable to catch them.

13. Assessment on this course includes / consists of coursework (30%) and examinations (70%).

(Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.)


1c – Finish the sentence

Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath:

1. I like your essay, but I want you to illustrate…

2. What will the result be if in the future we assume…

3. Students may be asked to compare many alternative…

4. The Channel Tunnel between France and England was constructed…

5. Everyone wants to be happy, but we probably all define…

6. Many universities now have language centres to facilitate…

7. Numbers and results are not particularly useful in themselves; we need to interpret…

8. In spite of warnings about cancer, many Westerners equate…

9. Advertisers use a variety of techniques…

10. At first, the police viewed the crimes as random…

11. It may be the case that no solution is possible, given the magnitude…

12. Although computers are becoming increasingly complex,…

13. The investigation was stopped because the witnesses could not identify…

a. …theories, from which they have to select the most convincing.

b. …happiness in many different ways.

c. …that nearly everyone has access to a motor car?

d. …the programs they use are becoming much easier to operate.

e. …a sun tan with health and youthfulness.

f. …the man they had seen commit the robbery.

g. …language learning for international students.

h. …at a cost of over £8 billion.

i. …of this problem.

j. …them to understand what they actually mean.

k. …events, but realised later that there was a pattern linking them.

l. …to persuade consumers to buy products and services.

m. …your points by providing some supporting examples.




1d – Word substitution

From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:

comply with (v), conclude (v), equivalent (adj), guarantee (n), imply (v), method (n), obvious (adj), presume (v), proceed (v), require (v), specify (v), sum (n)


1. If a company does not observe health and safety laws, it may be fined very heavily if any of its workers are injured.

2. For many years, $4 was equal to £1.

3. University regulations state that students must pass 18 modules to graduate.

4. Anybody driving a car is obliged by law to have insurance.

5. On the basis of their examination results, it was clear that most students had completely misunderstood the first part of the paper.

6. Many people think that oil will run out in the next 100 years, but they are assuming that we will continue to use oil at the same rate as today.

7. Most electrical products have a one- or two-year warranty in case something should go wrong.

8. One problem facing overseas students is adapting to new teaching techniques.

9. The fact that crime increases when unemployment goes up seems to suggest a link between the two.

10. It may cost an overseas student around £15,000 per year to live and study in Britain, which is a very large amount of money.

11. The lecturer gave the students a 10 minute break before continuing with the rest of her lecture.

12. At the end of her talk, the lecturer finished with a brief review of the main points.


1e – Choose the best word

For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a, b or c:

1. In this first assignment, we will _______________________ your work and then give you detailed feedback on how to improve your writing.
a. assess
b. judge
c. measure

2. In a seminar or tutorial, everyone should take part rather than allow one person to_______________________ the discussion.
a. overwhelm
b. dominate
c. oppress

3. Although it is impossible to give a _________________________ age, we believe that the woman was between 25 and 30 when she died.
a. definite b. certain c. absolute

4. Rather than try to treat it, the best _________________________ to the problem of poor public health may be to attempt to prevent it.
a. way
b. method
c. approach

5. Surprisingly perhaps, the biggest _________________________ health risk for tourists travelling abroad is actually road traffic accidents.
a. potential
b. possible
c. theoretical

6. Water is made up of two _______________________, namely oxygen and hydrogen.
a. sections
b. aspects
c. elements

7. Computers can be difficult to repair because there may be hundreds of different ________________ inside.
a. components
b. pieces
c. parts

8. Because Paris is expensive, many organisations pay higher salaries to _________________ for the high cost of living there.
a. compensate
b. adjust
c. redress

9. Many people were killed instantly at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but thousands more died from _________________ radiation sickness.
a. succeeding
b. following
c. subsequent

10. The clothing of men and women used to be quite ___________________________, whereas today women often wear trousers as well as men.
a. distinct
b. diverse
c. distinguished

11. Research _______________________ that customers want free car-parking when they go shopping.
a. claims
b. indicates
c. points out

12. In political terms, the Middle East is one of the most unstable __________________________ of the world.
a. locations b. places c. regions

13. The ___________________________ cause of death today in Britain is heart disease, with cancer in second place.
a. first
b. prime
c. initial


1f – Make a collocation

Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. For example, valid can be joined with reason. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:

  • new , analyse , leading, ultimate , valid , marital , establish , new , initial , reverse , tense , constant , minimum , put forward
  • status , responsibility , role , concept , the hypothesis , results , dimension , temperature , reason , a link , atmosphere , results , the verdict , requirement

1. If you submit work late, you will lose marks and may even be given a fail grade, unless you have a _________________ _________________ such as illness.

2. One travel company is now advertising a completely _________________ _________________ in tourism: flights into outer space by rocket.

3. At the bottom of the ocean, the water remains at a _________________ _________________ irrespective of changing weather conditions at the surface.

4. The growth of China will add a _________________ _________________ to the economic and political situation in the Far East.

5. Students are expected not just to describe what they have done but also to _________________ _________________ when they write a research report.

6. Investigators have been able to _________________ _________________ between childhood illnesses and industrial pollution.

7. Following the demonstrations by thousands of students, there was a very _________________ _________________ in the capital, with many choosing to leave the city and head for the countryside.

8. Unfortunately, although the _________________ _________________ were very promising, the project failed in the long run because of a lack of interest.

9. Engineers have played a _________________ _________________ in improving our health by giving us clean water supplies, perhaps more so than doctors.

10. The Managing Director may run the company, but _________________ _________________ rests with the Board of Directors.

11. On the form, please give your name, nationality, address and indicate your _________________ _________________.

12. When some scientists originally _________________ _________________ known as global warming, the idea was not taken seriously, and yet today it is accepted by nearly everyone.

13. In some instances, a Court of Appeal may _________________ _________________ reached at the first trial and released somebody who has been wrongly held in prison.

14. Most universities require international students to have an IELTS score of at least 6 as a _________________ _________________ for English language competence.


1. similar, 2. formulate, 3. context, 4. devised, 5. vertical, 6. impact, 7. usage, 8. summary, 9. denote , 10. arbitrary, 11. assigned, 12. criteria, 13. ignored, 4. data

1. evident, 2. publishes, 3. involving, 4. negative, 5. environment, 6. evaluate, 7. range, 8. modified, 9. restricted, 10. derive, 11. varies, 12. pursued, 13.consists of

1. m, 2. c, 3. a, 4. h, 5. b, 6. g, 7. j, 8. e, 9. l, 10. k, 11. i, 12. d, 13. f

1. comply with, 2. equivalent, 3. specify, 4. is required, 5. obvious, 6. presuming, 7. guarantee, 8. methods, 9. imply, 10. sum, 11. proceeding, 12. concluded

1. assess, 2. dominate, 3. definite, 4. approach, 5. potential, 6. elements, 7. components, 8. compensate, 9. subsequent, 10. distinct, 11. indicates, 12. regions, 13. prime

1. valid reason, 2. new concept, 3. constant temperature, 4. new dimension, 5. analyse results, 6. establish a link, 7. tense atmosphere, 8. initial results, 9. leading role, 10. ultimate responsibility, 11. marital status, 12. put forward a hypothesis, 13. reverse the verdict, 14. minimum requirement