Unit 19: Emphasis and understatement

Adjectives describing quantity and degree: • abundant ADJECTIVE Something that is abundant is present in large quantities. ■ There is an abundant supply of cheap labour. ■ Birds are abundant in the tall vegetation. ■ Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. • ample ADJECTIVE If there is an ample amount of something, […]

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Unit 18 Words for talking about ideas

Nouns for ideas: • concept (concepts) NOUN A concept is an idea or abstract principle. ■ [+ of] She added that the concept of arranged marriages is misunderstood in the west. ■ basic legal concepts • conjecture (conjectures) NOUN A conjecture is a conclusion that is based on information that is not certain or complete. […]

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Unit 15 Signposting expressions for writing

Adding points: • furthermore ADVERB Furthermore is used to introduce a piece of information or opinion that adds to or supports the previous one. [FORMAL] ■ Furthermore, they claim that any such interference is completely ineffective. ■ Furthermore, even a well-timed therapy intervention may fail. • moreover ADVERB You use moreover to introduce a piece […]

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Unit 7: The art of persuasion

Reporting verbs: • advocate (advocates, advocating, advocated) VERB If you advocate a particular action or plan, you recommend it publicly. [FORMAL] ■ a conservative who advocates fewer government controls on business ■ the tax policy advocated by the Opposition • acknowledge (acknowledges, acknowledging, acknowledged) VERB If you acknowledge a fact or a situation, you accept […]

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Unit 6 Cities

Nouns: • amenity (amenities) NOUN Amenities are things such as shopping centres or sports facilities that are provided for people’s convenience, enjoyment, or comfort. ■ The hotel amenities include health clubs, conference facilities, and banqueting rooms. • commuter (commuters) NOUN A commuter is a person who travels a long distance to work every day. ■ […]

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Unit 3: Education

Academic subjects: • archaeology also archeology UNCOUNTABLE NOUN Archaeology is the study of the societies and peoples of the past by examining the remains of their buildings, tools, and other objects. ■ an archaeology professor at Florida State University • astronomy UNCOUNTABLE NOUN Astronomy is the scientific study of the stars, planets, and other natural […]

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Unit 2 Health

Health problems: • addiction (addictions) NOUN Addiction is the condition of taking harm ful drugs and being unable to stop taking them. ■ long-term addiction to nicotine • allergy (allergies) NOUN If you have a particular allergy, you become ill or get a rash when you eat, smell, or touch something that does not normally […]

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Unit 20 Revision 2

Track 35 1 Government cuts to public spending triggered a second economic downturn. 2 Many environmentalists believe that the offshore oil industry has resulted in significant damage to marine life. 3 Interestingly, the Second World War contributed to the expansion of female employment, in particular, the increase in numbers of women doing jobs typically reserved […]

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Unit 16 Adverbs

• absolutely 1 ADVERB Absolutely means totally and completely. ■ Jill is absolutely right. ■ I absolutely refuse to do it. ■ There is absolutely no difference! 2 ADVERB Some people say absolutely as an emphatic way of saying yes or of agreeing with someone. They say absolutely not as an emphatic way of saying […]

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Unit 13 Words expressing similarity and difference

Verbs for describing difference: • contrast (contrasts, contrasting, contrasted) VERB If you contrast one thing with another, you point out or consider the differences between those things. ■ [+ with] She contrasted the situation then with the present crisis. ■ In this section we contrast four possible broad approaches. • differ (differs, differing, differed) VERB […]

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Unit 8 Getting involved

Nouns: • current affairs PLURAL NOUN If you refer to current affairs, you are referring to political events and problems in society which are discussed in newspapers, and on television and radio. ■ people who take no interest in politics and current affairs ■ the BBC’s current affairs programme ‘Panorama’ • recital (recitals) NOUN A […]

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Unit 5 Gadgets

Nouns to describe dimensions: • angle (angles) NOUN An angle is the difference in direction between two lines or surfaces. Angles are measured in degrees. ■ The boat is now teaning at a 30 degree angle. • circumference UNCOUNTABLE NOUN The circumference of a circle, place, or round object is the distance around its edge. […]

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Unit 4 Adventure

Verbs associated with travel and adventure: • accompany (accompanies, accompanying, accompanied) VERB If you accompany someone, you go somewhere with them. [FORMAL] ■ Ken agreed to accompany me on a trip to Africa. ■ The Prime Minister, accompanied by the governor, led the President up to the house. • encounter (encounters, encountering, encountered) VERB If you […]

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