the most unusual design feature here isthat the staircase can be moved bychanging the position of the staircaseyou can alter the shape and size of therooms as the family grows and lifestyleschange the house is also extremelyenvironmentally friendly with facilitiesfor recycling both water and waste thehouse for the future provides afascinating glimpse of what the futureholds the museum is open Monday toFriday that is the end of the sectionyou now have half a minute to check youranswers unit 18 focus on listening oneworldwide student projects section twoyou will hear a short talk on anorganization called worldwide studentprojects first look at questions 1 to 7as you listen to the first part of thetalk look at questions 1 to 7 andcomplete the table hi everyone my name’sSam Thomas and I’m here to give you someinformation about worldwide studentprojects or WSP for sure the talk takesabout 5 minutes and after that I’ll behappy to answer questions ok right wellWSP is a voluntary service organizationwhich was set up to promoteinternational understanding right nowwe’ve got people from 30 differentcountries working in local communitiesaround the world so if you’re interestedin joining them I’d like to tell youabout some of the opportunities that areavailable now depending how long youwant to be away there are three sorts ofproject to choose from short termprojects lasting two to three weeksmedium term projects lasting between oneand six months and long term projectswhich can be anything up to a year oneof the short-term ones we’ve got anoffer at the moment is in Japan it’s avillage improvement project and the workinvolves clearing the riverbanks andplanting flowers things like that you’dbe working alongside local people so youneed a basic knowledge of Japanese forthat the next one to tell you about is achildren’s holiday center in Polandwhat’s required here is basically manualwork you’ll be painting rooms gardeningand generally preparing for thechildren’s arrival it’s a medium termproject lasting six weeks and there’scomfortable accommodation on-site andnow something for the animal loversamongst you it’s a conservation projectfor sea turtles in Mexico sea turtlesare under threat from poachers in thatpart of the world so your main job wouldbe collecting and moving the eggs to asafe site it’s a short-term project andyou’d be staying in a local school butbe aware that it has very basicconditions don’t expect any luxury orsatellite TV now here’s an excitingopportunity in China for any buddingarchitects this is a long-term projectand placements are for nine months you’dbe working in an office in Shanghaiinvolved in planning and design undersupervision of a local architect oh andI should mention that you have to payadditional fee of two hundred and fiftyUS dollars when you arrive finally do wehave any medical students here becausethere’s a placement available in acenter for disabled children in Indiayou’d be providing general medical careand also assisting in the outpatientsDepartment it’s for six months so youcan get plenty of experience and also dosomething worthwhile for disabledchildren now look at questions of eightto tenas the talk continues look at questionseight to ten and complete the flowchartwell that’s just a taste of theincredible range of projects we have tooffer but I hope it’s whetted yourappetite and in case you do decide toapply let me tell you what happens nextfirst of all you need to fill in anapplication form and send it to us ohand you should also include a passportphoto by the way once we’ve received theform and photo we process them and thenwe send your welcome pack containinggeneral information about the programtogether with the formal terms andconditions these terms and conditionsare basically a list of responsibilitieson both sides yours and ours whathappens if you want to leave early etcand you also get a detailedquestionnaire which helps us identify asuitable job for you then about onemonth before you leave you’ll receiveall the details about your particularplacement and I think that’s about it ohI nearly forgot to mention we’ve alsogot a website the addresses in ourbrochure now are there any questionsthat is the end of the section you nowhave half a minute to check your answersunit 18 focus on listening to the end ofoil section 3 in this section you’llhear a tutorial discussion between astudent called Andrew and his tutor inthe first part they talk about Andrewsprogress and his preparations for anassignment on the subject of oil firstlook at questions 1 to 6 now listen tothe first part of the discussion andanswer questions 1 to 6 well as I sayAndrew we were a bit worried about yourprogress last term but you’ve done somevery good work recently and I think it’sfairly safe to assume you’ll pass thecourse now in fact if you can keep upthis standard we could very well belooking at a credit a credit really yesas long as you keep up the good work soreal pity about last time because youcould have got a distinction if youreally wanted to you know anyway theother thing we need to talk about isyour next assignment right right and youwanted to look at the subject of oil yesit’s a pretty major issue I mean thereare millions of buses and cars andtrucks in the world all dependent on oiland then the airline industry iscarrying more and more people around theworld every year so you have to considerglobal warming hang on a minuteI wouldn’t go into global warming if Iwere you that is huge subject in its ownright and quite a controversial one onmy dad the assignment is only supposedto be 3,000 words remember if you’re notcareful you’ll be writing a 30,000 wordfaeces in there okay don’t be tooambitious and keep an eye on a number ofwords you’ve got a word count on yourcomputer haven’t you yes good now let’sstart with a few basics do you know howmuch energy is actually used for fuelcompared with other thingsyes I found a breakdown it’s heresomewhere ah yes at transportation thataccounts for about a quarter of worldenergy quite a bit less than industrybut it’s still a significant proportionand whatthe figures industry is matter ofinternational that’s almost 45 percentand rest well the other 30 percent alsogoes into buildings things like heatingand air conditioning etc but anyway themain point I want to make was that wecan’t go on relying on oil forever inthe second part of the discussion Andrewand his tutor go on to examine theproblem further look at questions 7 to10 firstas you listen to the discussion answerquestions 7 to 10 cell Andrew you thinkoil is running out have you any evidenceof thatyes and it’s quite frighteningapparently nowadays oil companies areonly finding one barrel of oil for everyfour we actually use Britain’s North Seaoil is just about at its peak now it’llstart to decline pretty soon and severalmajor oil producers are alreadyproducing less for example well theformer Soviet Union is a good exampleand Mexico is another apparently evenSaudi Arabia will reach its peak in afew more years interesting okay and doyou know which countries use the mostoil yes a third of all the world’s oilgoes to North America worst of all isthe USA which gets through 459 gallonsof gasoline per head every year andCanada isn’t far behind with threehundred and three gallons quite a longway after that comes Germany and thenJapan all fairly forget to the lesserParis but the thing is there are othercountries catching up fast especially inthe asia-pacific regionthe two fastest growing a South Koreawhich has doubled its use of gasoline inten years and India which is up 64percent in the same period goodthat’s all very useful data now Isuppose the other thing you need to lookat is possible solutions any ideas Ihaven’t really got that far yet okaywell it comes down to two or threethings doesn’t it persuading people touse less oil by putting a tax on it youmean but that can penalize the poor ordiscovering new oil reserves somewherein the world unlikely and even thatwould only be a stopgap no I think theonly realistic long-term answer is tofind a replacement for oil I’ve seenhydrogen mentioned as the likelycandidate okay well I think we’d betterleave it there you seem to have a lot ofuseful information already and you justneed to work out the last sectionand don’t forget the word limit this ismy high one thanks for the help that isthe end of the sectionyou now have half a minute to check youranswers unit 20 so Kisan listening onephotography courses section one a manwants to find out about photographycourses listen to the conversationbetween the man and the woman first youhave some time to look at questions 1 to6now listen carefully and answerquestions 1 to 6 Department of artdesign and media can I help you yes I’dlike some information about photographycourses let me just get the prospectusok well we do several different coursesI’ll just run through them for youthe first is introducing photographythat runs for 10 weeks and it’s afoundation level course so it’s thepeople just beginning in photographyright that’s on Monday evenings from6:30 to 9:30 next there’s black andwhite photography which is atintermediate level so you would needsome previous experience for that oneand you also have to have an interviewwith a tutor beforehand soundsinterestingwe’re changing is it on it’s a daytimecourse actually from 2 to 4:30 onTuesdays that’s also for 10 weeks that’sa pretty I work on Tuesday afternoonit also landscape photography which ison Tuesday evenings from 6:30 to 9that’s a longer course than the othersit runs for 16 weeks and we needprevious experience for all let me justcheck hmm its advanced level so yes youwould yes and again you’d have to beinterviewed beforehand okay then theonly other one we do is the art ofdigital photography I’m not sure thatfor me but which anything is itit’s a flexi time course it’s on aWednesday but you can do it at any timeto suit you during the day how manyweight have that it’s up to you reallyyou have to do 60 hours in all and againthere’s an interview right the man asksfor more information about the courseslook at questions 7 to 10now listen to the conversation andanswer questions seven to ten okay can Ijust go back to the first course youmentioned um what sort of things doesthat cover introducing photography let’ssee what it says in the prospectus ohyes here it is find out about differenttypes of camera and camera care learnhow the cameras controls operate andwhich lenses to use for differentsubjects study the main elements ofeffective composition that’s all it saysyou could always talk to the tutor ifyou wanted more information to solve itbasic to be honest and what aboutlandscape photography was that the nextone yes that includes a field trip whereyou go out with your tutor on locationbut look to save me reading everythingout why don’t I send you the prospectusdon’t be greatwhat could you just give me an idea ofthe freeze I’ll just have to check rightintroducing photography that’s yes 95pounds black and whites the same I thinkno I tell a lie it’s a bit less actually85 pounds and then landscape and digitalthere those 140 pounds gosh well theyare longer courses if you remember withthe digital the fee also includes somephotographic materials and with thelandscape the cost of that field trip Imentioned is included right oh and Iforgot to ask is there an examinationnot as such but you can add your workassessed and get a certificate if youpay a small extra fee actually just onelast questionhow soon what I need to apply well thereare still places on all the courses atthe moment but they do tend to fill upquickly introducing photography isalways popular we’re running two coursesthis year so we can meet the demand anddigital is getting quite popular toobut there are only 12 places on theblack-and-white course so that everyonehas access to the equipment if you’reinterested in applying for that one Iwouldn’t leave it too long if I were youI’ll bear that in mindthanks very much for helpthat is the end of the section you nowhave half a minute to check your answersunit 20 so Kisan listening to history ofcinema section 4 you will hear a talkabout the development of cinematographyfirst you have some time to look atquestions one two threenow listen carefully and answerquestions 1 2 3 and complete the tableright no more than three words for eachanswer right if everyone’s herewhat I’d like to do in this firstsession of the film studies module is totake a brief look at the development ofcinematography and pick out a fewlandmarks along the way okay now thehistory of moving pictures begins withthe camera obviously and the history ofthe camera goes way back to the 11thcentury and something called the cameraobscura which was used in Arabia forobserving solar eclipses over thecenturies the camera obscura principlewas developed into a tool for drawingbut this had serious limitations as acamera because there was no way ofactually fixing the image then from the17th century we have the so called magiclantern which is really the forerunnerof today’s film projector this beganlife as a way of showing scientificpictures but because it could tell astory the magic lantern became mostwidely used for the purposes ofentertainment and in the 19th centurysome very elaborate and expensive modelswere developed the first instrumentwhich showed naturally moving pictureswas the so called Kinetoscope nicknamedthe peephole machine and this waspatented by Thomas Edison in 1894 thedisadvantage with this was that the filmcould only be seen by one person at atime so although it was a great stepforward the Kinetoscope never achievedgreat popularity now look at questionsfour to tenlisten carefully and answer questionsfour to ten and then around the year1895 we reach the beginning ofcinematography proper it was in thatyear that the Lumiere brothers showedoff the world’s first projection systemto an audience in Paris incidentally thefilm they screen with the new systemshowed a train approaching a station andapparently it was so realistic that someof the audience ran out of the buildingin terror it’s all the same the movieshad been born as time went on directorsexperimented with different kinds offilm one of the biggest successes of theearly years was also the first Westernfilm ever made this was a film calledthe Great Train Robbery shot in 1903 andit paved the way for the careers of thegreat cowboy heroes like John Wayne asyou know the early films were silent andusually accompanied by piano music therewere a few short experimental soundfilms during the early 20s but it wasn’tuntil 1927 that the first full-lengthsound film was produced this was thefamous the jazz singer starring AlJolson at first the film industry sawsound in film as just a gimmick whichwouldn’t lastbut the jazz singer was so successfulthey had to think again the final pieceof the jigsaw was the arrival ofTechnicolor this was first seen in acartoon made by Disney in 1932 howevercolor movies were expensive anddifficult to produce and it was 30 yearsor so before they completely replacedblack and white now a word about thestudio’s the American film industryoriginally grew up on the East Coast inNew York and Philadelphia but filmmakersneeded more reliable weather and in 1910many of them headed west for Californianow why California well apart from allyear-round sunshinethey found plenty of cheap landavailable where they could createstudios and Billhouses another attraction was the lowwages for all the various workers theyneeded to make films and California alsooffered incredibly varied landscapes forevery type of movie so directors andfilm stars poured into the little townof Hollywood and the population expandedby an incredible 700 percent in just 10years and in no time at all the nameHollywood meant just one thing moviesthat is the end of the section you nowhave half a minute to check your answercassette to side to IELTS practice testyou will hear a number of differentrecordings and you will have to answerquestions on what you hear there will betime for you to read the instructionsand questions and you will have a chanceto check your work all the recordingswill be played once only the tested infour sections at the end of the realtest you will be given ten minutes totransfer your answers to an answer sheetnow turn to section onesection one a woman called Anna isphoning a friend for some advice about aholiday listen to the telephoneconversation and answer the questionsfirst you have time to look at questions1 2 3 you will see if there is anexample that has been done for you onthis occasion only the conversationrelating to this will be played twicereadlyn – 5 4 3 1 9hi fam Anna here how do you got a secondI need some advicesure what can I do for you well I’ve putmy name down for a college trip toMorocco and I know you’ve been there afew timesAnna is planning to visit Morocco so theanswer is C now we shall begin youshould answer the questions as youlisten because you will not hear therecording a second time listen carefullyand answer questions 1 2 3 readlyn – 5 43 1 9 – Anna here have you got a secondI need some advicesure what can I do for you well I’ve putmy name down for a college trip toMorocco and I know you think there arefew timesyeah great place which part are yougoing to we’ve got a couple of days inMarrakesh then we drive over the highatlas mountains and head for the desertfabulouswhen are you going the second week ofNovember till the 17th ten days in allwhat do you think the weather will belike November well it should have cooleddown by then fortunately it can beincredibly hot in summer yeah it shouldbe very pleasant around 20 degreescentigrade during the day as you thinkand there’s not much likelihood of rainthen but make sure you take somethingwarm to wear because the temperature candrop a lot at night bounds are fivedegrees or even lower really how that’sworth knowing but it’s a wonderful timeof year to go there could be snow on themountains button.if so the views will befantastic painful yes if you stop in avillage or go to a local market thepeople are usually very friendly greatnow I also wanted to ask you we’ve got atransiting this camel trek in the Saharabut I’m not so sure about it what areyou crazyit’ll be the experience of a lifetimethink of it riding through the desertssleeping under the stars but it’sarriving bitch I’m worried about I meanit’s a long way too far off where’s yourspirit of adventure I’m telling you youhave to do it okay okay he’s made herpoint and I want to know what she shouldtake with her on the trip look atquestions four to tennow listen to the rest of theconversation and answer questions fourto ten right no more than three wordsfor each answer now I need your adviceon what to take with me all right wellit sounds as if there is going to be alot of traveling so still comfortableloose trousers old t-shirts don’t takeanything new you haven’t worn in yet andthat applies especially to shoes haveyou got some walking shoes yeah goodyou’re bound to do a fair bit of walkingand a slam hat is absolutely essentialof course but if I were you I’d take awarm jacket as well as I said it getspretty cold at night especially in thedesert right the other thing you’ll needfor the night in a desert is a sleepingbag yes I don’t know anyone who couldlend me one to you you can borrow mineif you like that would be great thanksnow you’re going with a group right yeahten of us and an experienced leader goodwell they’ll be medical supplies for thegroup but you should also take a smallpersonal first-aid kit with any specialmedication you need plus painkillersantiseptic cream etc right what elsedon’t forget some cream obviously andI’d also take a small torch if you canthe electricity can be a bit unreliablein some places and there won’t be any inthe desert so a torch can come in handythose are the main things you haven’tmentioned a water bottle oh I wouldn’tbother if I were you I’ve never had anyproblem finding drinking water inMorocco it would just take up space andbe an unnecessary expense but one thingI nearly forgot make sure you take acamera I better check the mind fromworking orderyes you’d kick yourself if anything wentwrong with it and it’s best to take allthe film you need with you as well it’snot that easy to come by outside the bigtowns right Wowsuch a long list you’ve been a big helpSam thanks a millionno worries at a great time that is theend of section one you now have half aminute to check your answers now turn tosection two section two you will hearsome advice about healthy computingfirst look at questions 11 to 14 as youlisten to the first part of the talkanswer questions 11 to 14okay well the thanks everyone for comingour speaker today is Sarah Matthews theseries of physiotherapist and she’sgoing to give us some advice abouthealthy computing over to you Sarahthanks Simon now I imagine that anyonewho works on a computer fairly regularlyhas the odd backache or neck aches fromtime to timewell you shouldn’t ignore symptoms likethat they can lead to more seriousproblems there is a condition which hasbeen in the news a lot recently calledrepetitive strain injury or RSI it’susually associated with computeroperators but actually it can affectanyone who spends a lot of time workingin one fixed position factory workersare an obvious example because there’svery little scope for movement whenyou’re working on a production line andshop assistants can also suffer from RSIespecially if their work involvesrepetitive tasks like filling shelves oroperating the tool but these anothergroups you may not think of immediatelyand that’s musicians they’re also atrisk because of the repetitive movementsthey make it’s not that easy to beprecise about the number of people whoare suffering from RSI but a researchstudy suggested that around 500,000workers in the UK are affected and ofcourse that means not only discountfor the employees concerned but alsolost productions for their employers nowlook at questions 15 to 20 as the tourcontinues answer questions 15 to 20 andof course there’s a cost to the economyas well I’m not sure what the figurewould be but I do know that the numberof disability claims relating to RSI hasgone up dramatically in recent yearsback in 1990 the percentage of totaldisability claims was just 1.7 percentbut by 1998 this had gone up totwenty-two point five percent so almosta quarter and that’s a trend that looksset to continue so what causes RSI wellwhat happens when you stay in oneposition for any length of time is thatyou’re only using part of your body thatmeans that certain muscles and ligamentsaren’t moved or stretched as a resultthey tighten up and this leads toproblems it’s a very painful conditionand it can take months of risk torecover from itand is there any way of avoiding theseproblems well first of all try not tospend too long on any one task if you’vegot a lot of typing to do try to take amini break every 10 minutes or so justlook away from the computer and moveyour shoulders and and wrists then everyhalf hour you should take a longer breakaway from your desk go and have a cup ofcoffee make a phone call or just stretchyour legs for a few moments other thingsto think about well first and foremostyou need a chair that provides propersupport for your lower back is it’sadjusted to the right height your feetshould rest comfortably on the floor andthere should be no pressure on theunderside of your thighs the desk ortable you work atneeds to be the right height to whenyou’re using the keyboard your forearmsshould be roughly horizontal and yourwrists should be straight avoid bendingthem up or down and to minimizestretching have a keyboard immediatelyin front of you and any documents youneed within easy reach lastly take goodcare of your eyes don’t have thecomputer monitor near a window or lampbecause this can cause reflections andmake sure the screen isn’t too bright ortoo dark use the control on the monitorto adjust the brightness to acomfortable level and remember to keepthe screen clean if you do think you’redeveloping a problem stop doing whateverit is that causes pain going to yourdoctors straight away because the earlytreatment is the key to success wellthat’s all this time for I hope whatI’ve said is being useful and I wish youall healthy computing that is the end ofsection 2 you now have half a minute tocheck your answersto section 3 section 3 in this sectionyou’ll hear a radio discussion betweenthree people in the first part of thediscussion the presenter asks JeremySanford an economist about his views onthe future of work first look atquestions 21 to 24 now listen to thefirst part of the discussion and answerquestions 21 to 24 hello with me in thestudio to discuss the future of work Ihave Jeremy Sanford moving economisthello and Caroline Clarke who’s one ofthe new breed of home workers hi now areport published last week says we canall look forward to working much shorterhours in future forgive me for soundingskeptical but haven’t we heard all thisbefore Jeremy well it’s true the labormarket is still pretty traditional atthis point in time but in 10 or 20 yearswe’ll definitely see some massivechanges such as can you give us someexamples well by 2020 there will be alot more people on temporary contractswe estimate that the number of temporaryworkers will rise by 20 to 25 percentthe idea of a job for life is already athing of the past of course and peopleare going to have to become even moreflexible we also believe that there willbe fewer people working in traditionaloffice surroundings and then around 50%of workers will be working from home insome way light Caroline here that’sright but how do you know these changesare on the horizon well we did a surveyof 200 companies and 60% said theythought there would be significantorganizational changes in the next tenyears if that many companies areexpecting change I think we have to takethe idea very seriously right and also alot comes down to statistics we know forexample that there won’t be enough youngworkers by 2020 that’s because of thefalling birth rate in Europe at the sametime with better health care betternutrition and so on people are livingmuchlonger that means that more than halfthe adult population of Europe will beover 50 before long so obviously thatwill create a gap in the labor marketwell I suppose that could mean moreopportunities for oldies like us Jeremybut what about the workplace of thefuture are we really going to see theso-called paperless office yes I thinkwe are filing cabinets full of documentswill be a thing of the past what we’llhave instead is electronic screens whichhave all the characteristics of paperCaroline you’re shaking your headpersonally I don’t see the paperlessoffice happeningnot until we start changing habits inschools in the second part of thediscussion the presenter talks toCaroline Clark who’s a home worker firstlook at questions 25 to 30 as you listento the second part of the discussionanswer questions 25 to 30 okay let’sturn to you now Caroline you were athree-day week is that rightyes and what made you decide to leave afull-time job and work from home wellbasically I felt I wanted the time to doother things apart from work I wantedthe chance to enjoy a few leisureactivities for example and I think a lotof other workers feel the same as methese days single mothers for examplewho wants more time to childcare andalso I used to spend two hours a daytraveling to and from the office by busand can you thing is quite stressfulobviously especially when the bus islate or there’s some big holdup soavoiding that is another big advantageand I also feel I can be more productiveat home because you don’t get so manydistractions in the office – phones ringall the time and there are visitors andmeetings and is there anything you missabout your old job in the office yes youdo feel a bit isolated sometimes be in afunny way I missed the coffee break andthe chance to chat to colleagues soworkers of the future mayend up missing the office Jeremy well Ithink the office will still exist not somuch for processing information as it isnow but mainly so you can meet otherpeople there will always be times when aface-to-face meeting is better than atelephone conversation or an email andit’s also important to make the pointthat flexible working doesn’tnecessarily mean working from homeyou’ll be able to work anywhere youchoose really so long as you have yourlaptop computer and somewhere to plug itin so it’s definitely not the end ofwork as we know itknow well on that reassuring note mythanks to Jeremy and Caroline next weekwe’ll be discussing the future of themotorcar that is the end of section 3you now have half a minute to check youranswersnow turn to section four section fouryou’ll hear a lecturer talking aboutbridge building first you have some timeto look at questions 31 to 33 now listencarefully and answer questions 31 to 33this is the first of the series oflectures on historic engineeringstructures today we’re looking at theClifton suspension bridge in Bristolwhich we hope to visit later this termand I liked it again with a brief wordabout the bridges history and aboutbridge building in general now peoplehave been building bridges sinceprehistoric times over the centuriesbridge design has evolved using avariety of engineering techniques butthe objective has always been the sameto get to the other side one of the mostbasic types of bridge is the arch andthere’s evidence from the Middle Eastthat people knew how to construct archesusing stone or brick as early as 3200 BCthe stone arch had the advantage ofbeing quite simple to build and itremains the main type of bridge designfrom Roman times until the early 1700sanother type of bridge with a longhistory is the suspension bridge wherethe road is suspended from cableshanging between towers the firstsuspension bridges were simple Affairsmade of rope and wood and the earliestrecorded examples were constructedaround 550 ad in China but rope haslimited strength and it only becamepossible to build longer bridges wheniron became available the first majoriron suspension bridge in Europecompleted in 1826 was the Menai Straitbridge in Wales in the second part thelecturer talks about the construction ofthe piston suspension bridge and alsodescribes some proposals for new bridgeslook at questions 34 to 40listen carefully and answer questions 34to 40 the story of the Cliftonsuspension bridge in Bristol began justthree years later in 1829 at that timethe city authorities wanted to build abridge over the River Avon in order tochoose the best design they organizedthe competition and the winner announcedin 1831 was an engineer by the name ofisambard kingdom brunel work began thesame year but it was almost immediatelyinterrupted when serious riots broke outin the city as a result investors lostconfidence and work stopped until 1836the to supporting piers had beencompleted by 1843 but unfortunately atthis point the money ran out and work onthe bridge came to a halt for a secondtime then in 1851 all the iron work forthe bridge was sold off in orders of paybacks of creditors and the projectseemed to have reached an endhowever in 1860 there was a stroke ofluck when a suspension bridge in Londonwas demolished that bridge had chainswhich were almost the same as the onesdesigned for Clifton and these chainswere available to buy events movedquickly after that money was raised andwork went ahead again in 1862 the bridgewas finally completed amid greatcelebration two years later in 1864we’ll be examining some of the designfeatures in more detail in the secondhalf of this talk but just as a footnoteto this section it’s worth looking aheadto the future and a couple of proposalsfor super bridges linking not riverbanks or even countries but continentsone of these is for a bridge betweenAlaska and Siberia which would be sixlanes wide and 80 kilometers long thewater of the Bering Sea beneath is onlyabout 50 metres deep but the biggestchallenge is the extreme cold of thelocation this would restrictconstruction to five months a year andalso close the road during winterdifferent obstacles facing a secondproposal a bridge linking Europe andAfrica across the Straits of Gibraltarand that’s the depth of water althoughit’s only 28 kilometers across the wateris as deep as 1,500 metres in places insuch deep water a bridge may not be ableto support its own weight so engineersare considering using bridge structureswhich has never been attempted beforea third Seaway that engineers hope thecross in the near future is the Straitsof Messina between the island of Sicilyand mainland Italy unlike the other twoproposals the Messina bridge onlyinvolves one national government and thedistance is relatively short at two anda half kilometers so there’s a goodchance it will be built in this casejust a matter of who will provide thecache okay let’s take a break at thispoint and then that is the end ofsection four you now have half a minuteto check your answersthat is the end of the listening test atthe end of the real test you will haveten minutes to transfer your answers toan answer sheet published in copyrightPearson Education Limited 2002unit 14 focus on listening one mediasurvey section one a woman is carryingout a survey about how people usedifferent media listen to theconversation between the woman and a manand answer the questions first you havesome time to look at questions 1 to 6now listen carefully and answerquestions 1 to 6 excuse me have you gota few minutes to answer some questionswhat about I’m doing a survey about howpeople use the media things likenewspapers television computers etceteratruth well okay can I start by taking afew personal details it don’t worry it’scompletely confidential sure first couldI have your name yes Philip Matthewsthat’s M a TT h e WS net news right andcough it and do you mind if I ask yourage no that’s alrightI’m 21 I’ll be 22 next week was ithappened no and many happy returns inadvance Thanks and what’s youroccupation I suppose I have to sayfull-time student is that an occupationit certainly is okay now turning to thesurvey product do you buy a daily paperno I usually get one on Saturday sir orwhat’s the first thing you turn to inthe newspaper that’s easy the sportssectiondoesn’t everyone you’ve got to check onyour team’s progress read the matchreport mu and after that I generallyhave a quick look at the news when yousay news is that local national orinternational oh I’d say national newsnot local nothing very exciting happensaround here and I’m not terribly up oninternational affairs and are there anyother sections you read regularly abusiness for example you must be jokingbusiness bores me stiff I’m afraid andlet me think I might have a look at theart section once in a while but not as aregular thing I suppose the only otherthing I make a point of looking at isthe TV reviews and you watch a lot of TVfree to do yes too much probably rightthat’s it for that section the womanasks the man some more questions look atquestions 7 to 10 now listen to theirconversation and answer questions 7 to10 well if we could turn to TV and radionow right is there any particular kindof TV program you watch well the newsobviously and sport but mostly I want tobe entertained I like a good TV dramasomething with a strong plot that youcan get involved in I don’t watch a lotof documentaries to be honest and mostof the comedies and quiz shows theyleave me cold and do you listen to theradio at all in the mornings I do Iprefer it to breakfast TV but that’sabout the only time so would you say yougot most of your information fromtelevision yes I suppose I would as Isaid I don’t go in for a daily paper andfinally just a couple more questions doyou use a computer yes and what wouldyou say you use it for mostly hmm that’sa hard one I mean I use it for computergames like everyone else but I’ve beencutting down on that lately I think atthe moment I probably use it most fortyping up lecture notes and other coursework like assignments I did once to tryto keep an account of my spending on itbut I didn’t get very far do you haveinternet accessyes how do you use that mainly well itcan be very useful for college work Ifound an awful lot of informationsurfing the web but in answer to yourquestion I think I’d have to say emailmhmit’s just a great way of keeping intouch with friends especially the ones Ihave abroadokay how about online banking how do youthought about that not while I’ve goneover job no fair enoughokay well thanks very much for your timeisn’t it yep that’s it okay well choosethat is the end of the section you nowhave half a minute to check your answersunit 14 focus on listening to couchpotatoes section three in this sectionyou will hear a discussion between twostudents Amy and Jonathan and auniversity tutor in the first part ofthe discussion they’re talking aboutstatistics relating to television andother home entertainment first look atquestions 1 to 4now listen to the first part of thediscussion and answer questions 1 to 4hi AmyJonathan do sit down okay we’re talkingabout the media today and I think Amyyou were going to start us offyes I found a couple of pieces ofinformation on the internet fine okaywell one was a survey of televisionviewing habits looking at heavy viewersin different countries and a heavyviewer is yes sorryit’s someone who watches TV for morethan two hours a day anyway there weretwo countries where more than 50% of thepeople were heavy viewers the UK cametalk with 58% and New Zealand wasn’t farbehind with 53% some of the otherresults were quite surprising actuallyfor example well I would have expectedthe USA to be high on the list but itcame quite far down with 40% othercountries like Germany were much higherand in the country with fewest heavyviewers turned out to be Switzerland Iwould have guessed maybe Portugal thankswell that’s useful data anything else toreport yesI also found a breakdown of TV programshown in an average week it’s only forone channel but it’s probably fairlytypicalthere are basically two major areaswhich account for most of the time oneis new stroke fatal sorry what do youmean by a factual documentary currentaffairs things like that and the otheris drama stroke entertainment okay wellnews and factual programmes take up justover a quarter of the week but drama andentertainment is much more popular thataccounts for about half the week’sviewing and the remaining time what’sthat about another quarter I suppose isall the other things like sporteducation the arts etc okay what youmight want to try and get data for oneor two other countries but anyway thanksfor that any now Jonathan over to youokay well I was interested in howchildren use the media and I thought I’dlook at the kind of home entertainmentequipment children have access tothat’s an interesting angle whatequipment specifically basically videorecorders CD players and satellite TVright well video recorders seem to bepretty well Universal nowadays almostevery home with children has one andthat’s been the case for at least tenyears on the other hand CD players usedto be a lot less common but there’s beena steady increase in recent years andnow about two-thirds of families haveone then finally satellite TV that wasfairly rare to begin with but againthere’s been a gradual increase andnowadays it’s in about a quarter ofhomes with children that’s useful datagood in the second part of thediscussion they discuss children’s useof the media in more detail look atquestions five to ten firstlisten carefully and answer questions 5to 10 okay Jonathan now what would yousay is the most important medium forchildren TV definitely any thoughtsabout why that should bewell I suppose television offers a lotof things excitement relaxation etc andit doesn’t make any demands it’s apassive activity but probably mostlybecause all their friends watch it and Idon’t want to feel left out a good pointAmy you have a question yes do we knowhow much time children spend watching TVI think it’s about two and a half hoursa day in Britain more than most otherEuropean countries anyway I rememberanother surprising statistic was thattwo out of three children in Britainhave TVs in their bedroom really as manyas that yes but the good thing is isthat their parents know where they arebut not necessarily what they’rewatching Jonathan any idea how manychildren have access to a computer howjust a sec yes in Britain at any rate 53percent of children have a computer inthe home but only about a quarter have acomputer actually in their bedroom hmmthat’s still quite a significantproportion though anyway finally dideither of you consider books at all orare they just old hat these days welljudging by the kids I know I play bookswere definitely out of favor they seemto see books as dull and boring the sortof thing your parents approve of youknow not exactly fashionable amongstyour friends yeah and my youngerbrothers are the same reading books istoo much like hard work compared withwatching TV if they want entertainmentthey definitely watch TV rather thanread a book what a shame well all youneed to do now is to write a report onyour findings but into the next weekokay that is the end of the section younow have half a minute to check youranswers cassette to side one unit 16focus on listening one reality orscience fictionsection three you will hear a telephoneconversation between two students firstyou have some time to look at questionsone to tennow listen carefully and answerquestions 1 to 10 right no more thanthree words for each answer Oh Jack it’sHelen here look this is just a quickcall I found an article on the internetthat might be useful for that assignmentyou were doing it’s basically a sciencefiction writers predictions about thefuture great doin some inspiration wellif you’ve got something to write with Ican run through them for you just a secall right go ahead okay well the firstprediction is massive rapid change hesays it’s going to affect just aboutevery area of life political socialeconomic and so onthat’s in the first category which hecalls definite so he’s put thepredictions and categories interestingbut doesn’t mention any specificquarters let me see yeshe says the transformations will bedriven by and I quote the forces ofdemocracy which has incredible math andtechnology which has incredible velocityI’m writing that down right right thereare three more in a definite sectionmore city dwellers I got on that alreadyactually but tell me about the other twookay well talking about animals he saysthat at the moment more species arebeing destroyed men are coming inconsistent especially yeah got that nextand unless it is he says there are about6000 spoken today but about half ofthose aren’t being taught in schoolanymore so they’re bound to die out Imust say I didn’t realize it was as manyas that no anyway the next category isalmost certainyou’ve probably got most of these theglobal warming computed everywhere justgot those more people yes populationexplosion etc but just a said it doesn’tgive any up-to-date figure for a globalpopulation does he I think so yes sixbillion that was a figure for 2000 atany rate they also askedthe question how many people can heearth support apparently most estimatesput the Earth’s long-term capacity atfour to six billion we’re rich rightalreadyI know scary isn’t it anyway the thirdcategory is probable and here we’ve gotmore countries that can’t be right canitwell he says there’s a trend towardsmore and smaller countries which isgoing to continue he points out that theSoviet Union broke into 15 parts longerlife and the other one here isalternative energy dahe says the basic science andengineering for new energy economy willbe completed by 2025 but he thinks it’llprobably take most of the century for itto actually be implemented worldwide I’mjust scribbling that down okay nextspace explorationhe says the exploration of our solarsystem will continue with more probesmore satellites etc but only as long aswe had political stability good pointI’d better mention that politicalstability two-factor right and he alsothinks new countries will be involved hementions China Japan and Korea okay okaythen the last category is possible withonly two headings one is nuclear war soit’s not optimistic about world peacenot terribly he mentions several causesfor concernlike the amount of nuclear know-howthere is around these days and the factthat there are still so many problemsituations in different parts of theworld which could end up in conflict butalso just the sheer number of nuclearweapons in existence how the pressureand then the last prediction is what hecalled first contact finding life onother planets I suppose I think I’llsteer clear of science fiction anywayalways has been a huge help thanks abillion Helen no problembye-bye that is the end of the sectionyou now have half a minute to check youranswersunit 16 focus on listening to the technohouse section 4 you will hear shortradio talk about the house of the futurefirst you have some time to look atquestions 1 to 6now listen carefully and answerquestions 1 to 6 next as part of ourcontinuing education series we take alook at the house of the future inrecent years house builders have beenkeen to show the public what new homescould look like and to demonstratewhat’s possiblethey built special show homes featuringall the latest technology andenergy-saving features but although thetechnology is already in place to bringall these exciting innovations intopeople’s living rooms and bedrooms veryfew new houses actually include them whyis this well it seems that public demandfor the house of the future is stillvery low it seems people are notterribly interested inenvironmentally-friendly technologyaccording to the developers thehomebuyers first consideration is pricethey’re simply not willing to pay extrafor the benefit of all the latesttechnology after price the thing they’remost concerned about is location theymay want to be near a good school forexample or close to the shops the thirdmain consideration is design and itseems most buyers still want to live ina traditional looking house Mike saidthere are a few forward-lookingdesigners around who are hoping topersuade British people to abandon theirprejudices and choose something new agroup called the integer project isdesigning houses which are bothintelligent and green for themstate-of-the-art design doesn’t have tomean expensive integer project housesuse lightweight materials andprefabricated panels which saves bothtime and moneya typical three-story house will takeonly 28 weeks to build and back tosaving of 20 weeks on conventionalconstruction what if the buildingsdesigned by the integer project if theso called millennium house thisincorporates a whole host of high-techenergy-saving features includingcomputer controls energy-efficientlighting and heating but one of its mostunusual features has to be the roofwhich is covered with grass thisprovides an effective form of insulationbut how you manage to cut it I’m notsure the building is actually designedas a house within a house there’s aninner box containing all the main roomsand this is surrounded by an outer glasshouse which provides a controlledclimate where plants can be grown thelower floor is below ground level soit’s sheltered by earth on three sidesto prevent heat loss and outside thewater is collected from the roof in apond the water from the pond can then beused for watering the garden and there’salso equipment for recycling organicwaste in the second part the speakerdescribes some experimental houses whichare being developed look at questions 7to 10 now answer questions 7 to 10 rightno more than 3 words for each answerinteger principles are actually beingtried out in one house in a newdevelopment by Berkeley homes hereheating and lighting are controlled bycomputers and the water is recycledwithin the house water for domesticpurposes can also be heated by solarenergythanks to solar panels fitted on theroof this house is going to be thesubject of ongoing research as for thebenefits of its design and constructionanother developer Lang homes have teamedup with a firm of Internet experts tobuild a five bedroom show house nearLondon which is called the Internethouse from the outside the house looksmuch like any other family home butinside is a fascinating computer brainthe technology also allows a homeownerto operate the heating the TV thesecurity system and even the gardenwatering from the office or car using awebsite a third developer read row homeshas taken the brave step of building thehouse for the future which can be seenat the Museum of Welsh Life near Cardiff