advocate [aedvakeit] v.
To advocate a plan or idea is to support or suggest it in public.
—» The group advocated increased spending on education and schools.
authorize [5:earaiz] v.
To authorize something means to give permission for it.
—» The mayor authorized the construction of a new statue in the park.
Civilian [siviljan] n. 1
A civilian is someone who is not in the military.
-* It was Todd’s job to keep civilians from entering the army facility.
commodity [kamddati] n.
A commodity is something that can be bought or sold.
—►Fran’s uncle made most of his money trading commodities.
conquest [karjkwest] n.
A conquest is an event by which one country takes over another country.
—►After the conquest, the people of the small city had no freedom.
d is c lo s e [disklouz] v.
To disclose something means to tell it to someone else.
-* John came home late, so he had to disclose his activities to his wife.
dynamics [dainaemiks] n.
The dynamics of a situation are the way that parts of it affect each other.
—►A good psychologist needs to know a lot about the dynamics of brain disorders.
enroll [enroul] v.
To enroll in something is to put one’s name on a list as a member of a group.
—►The students had to enroll in the class one semester in advance.
envious [envias] adj.
When someone is envious, they want something that another person has.
—►They were envious of their neighbor’s front yard.
euphoria [ju:f5:ria] n.
Euphoria is a feeling of extreme happiness.
—►The athlete felt euphoria after he won the important game.
festive [festiv] adj.
When something is festive, it is happy and related to a party or celebration.
—►Dean’s favorite part of Christmas is the festive clothing that people wear.
jolly [d3alij adj.
When someone is jolly, they are cheerful and happy.
—* My grandmother’s jo lly attitude always made me smile.
lentil [lent/I] n.
Lentils are very small beans that people cook and eat.
—►Danni made her special soup with lentils when her husband was sick.
marshal [maxjai] v.
To marshal a group means to assemble them in order.
-» The students were marshaled outside and put into groups.
morale [mourafel] n.
Morale is the amount of hope that people have during a difficult situation.
-» To improve our family’s morale, mom suggested going on a picnic.
prophecy [prdfasi] n.
A prophecy is a prediction about what will happen in the future.
—►Some people believe that prophecies are actually true.
sage [seids] n.
A sage is someone who is very wise.
-*■ Hal always visited the local sage for help with love.
senate [senat] n.
A senate is a part of the government in some countries.
—►Everybody liked Caroline and chose her to speak for them in the senate.
sentiment [sentamant] n.
A sentiment is an opinion based on your feelings.
—►Tess told everyone at the table her sentiments about eating meat.
unrest Unrest] n.
Unrest is a state of anger about something among the people in a place.
—»High taxes caused much of the unrest that led to the Revolutionary War.
The Lydian King
King Croesus was once one of the richest kings in the world. He ruled over Lydia, an ancient
empire located near modern-day Turkey and controlled a valuable commodity: gold. Many
people were very envious of him.
One day, a messenger disclosed some interesting news: political unrest in Persia had
weakened the empire. Before then, the Persians had taken over many countries. Many
leaders were scared of the Persian conquest. But King Croesus understood the dynamics
of war better than most. He decided that it would be a good time to try to beat the Persians
while they were weak.
He advocated starting war, but nobody shared his sentiment. Then he asked a wise
member of the senate who was visiting from Athens. The sage didn’t say whether he should
attack the Persians or not. He only warned him that his good luck wouldn’t last.
Finally, King Croesus sent a messenger to visit the Oracle, a special lady who could see %
the future. The messenger gave the Oracle jugs of wine and baskets of lentils in orderto make
When the messenger came back, he was in a festive mood.
“What was the Oracle’s prophecy?” asked King Croesus.
The jolly messenger responded, “ She said that if you attack Persia, you will destroy a great
The news filled Croesus with euphoria. After hearing the Oracle’s prophecy, many civilians
enrolled in the Lydian army. The king marshaled his troops and prepared them for a war with
Persia. Their morale was high because they were sure they would win. Soon, King Croesus
authorized an attack against the Persians.
However, the Persian army was still very strong. After a few months of fighting, it was
obvious that the Oracle’s prophecy had come true: by attacking the Persians, King Croesus
had destroyed a great empire—his own! King Croesus should have considered the advice