11a – Fill in the gaps


From the following list, use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word:

challenge (n) , diameter (n) , enable (v) , expert (n) , export (n) , fundamental (adj) , import (n) , luxury (n) , pest (n) , pollution (n) , starve (v) , temporary (adj) , tractor (n)

1. The ________________ of live animals is strictly controlled so as to prevent diseases from being brought into the country.

2. We recommend that you take a pre-sessional study skills course, which will ________________ you to practise the language skills you will need later.

3. Supplying ________________ to Third World farmers may seem an excellent idea, but in practice these machines are often not suited to local conditions and so tend to break down.

4. Some business leaders become bored with well-established organisations and prefer instead the ________________ of setting up a new company.

5. During the 1980’s, thousands of people ________________ in Sudan and Ethiopia because there was no food.

6. The USA has a huge domestic market and so is less reliant on ___________________ for the success of its economy.

7. One major problem with some early insecticides was that they tended to kill not only harmful ___________________ but also those insects which actually helped the farmer.

8. Most international students choose to live in university accommodation, while others may stay with a host family as a ___________________ measure before renting their own houses.

9. In many developed countries, what used to be considered as ___________________ goods are now regarded as necessities.

10. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system, with a ___________________ of about 570,000 kilometres.

11. With any quotation you wish to use, make sure that the author you are quoting is an ________________ or academic authority.

12. Increasingly, major industrial companies are finding that consumers are concerned about any ________________ created by the manufacture of their products.

13. The Director reminded the middle managers that full cooperation from all workers was _________________ to the success of the company.


11b – Choose the right word


In each of the sentences below, decide which word in bold is more suitable:

1. Two of the missing children have been rescued but the fate / destiny of the other six is still unknown.

2. The process / action by which plants use sunlight to produce food is known as photosynthesis.

3. Very small bubbles / blobs of air can become trapped in liquid metal, causing it to become weak.

4. At first, students were hostile / unfriendly to the idea of being videoed during their presentations, but they soon realised that this would help them to improve their technique.

5. The government lost the election because of a whole brochure / catalogue of scandals and political errors.

6. Following the decision to pass legislation to compel / urge employers to improve safety standards at work, the number of deaths from accidents has fallen sharply.

7. Car theft / burglary remains higher in Britain than in any other European country.

8. In the past, large parts of Holland were drained / emptied of water to produce new farmland.

9. The area around the Great Pyramids is one of the most important archaeological sites / spots for the study of ancient Egypt.

10. Until recently, goods from countries such as Taiwan and Korea were often thought to be worse / inferior, and yet today these countries make many high-quality products.

11. The introduction of the fax and more recently e-mail has made it much easier to communicate / contact with other people all around the world.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.


11c – Finish the sentence


Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath:

1. According to a recent large-scale government survey…

2. Car manufacturers are keen to develop other sources of fuel…

3. An increase in the number of accidents led to a public debate…

4. Although it means that people live longer, the equipment…
5. Japan’s greatest resource…

6. A group of students decided to complain because one tutor cancelled…

7. Some countries use a thirteen-month calendar…

8. Young plants will grow quickly if the soil is moist…

9. Increasingly, universities are being asked to undertake…

10. As people can now make purchases on impulse…

11. Computers make use of the binary system (0,1), unlike the decimal…

12. Although the new equipment performed well under laboratory…

a. …based on the lunar cycle, rather than the more normal twelve-month system.

b. …about the safety of the national railway system.

c. …system (0-9) which we use in everyday life.

d. …used in modern hospitals has increased the cost of health care.

e. …– such as solar power – since oil will not last for ever.

f. …with credit cards, buying habits have changed.

g. …all tutorials for a week.

h. …conditions, it was simply not robust enough for everyday use.

i. …and warm, but not if it is too damp or cold.

j. …is its people, since it has very few sources of raw materials or energy.

k. …conducted in the UK, levels of reading and writing skills are still low.

l. …research in order to develop new products on behalf of large companies.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.


11d – Word substitution


From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:

bulk (n) , fluid (n) , fulfil (v) , huge (adj) , inspect (v) , instance (n) , novel (n) , revolve (v) , shrink (v) , switch (v) , topic (n) , vital (adj)

1. In some cases, the patients did not make any improvement, but generally the treatment was a huge success.
2. While a few students stay in university halls of residence, the majority of students choose to rent their own accommodation at some point in their studies.
3. In the course of a marathon, a runner needs to drink water periodically in order to make up for the liquid lost through sweating.
4. Before starting work on your dissertation, make sure that you have discussed the subject with your supervisor.
5. Staff responsible for examining aircraft checked the plane and declared it unsafe.
6. Some students find it very confusing when a lecturer changes from the topic under discussion to share a joke with his audience.
7. The stories of Charles Dickens give us a very clear picture of life in Britain in the nineteenth century.
8. Many students complained when the university failed to keep its promise to allow students 24 hour access to the computer centre.
9. Each time the star rotates, it sends out a radio signal which we can detect on Earth, allowing us to calculate the speed of rotation.
10. It is absolutely essential that you check your examination entries to make sure they are correct; if they are not you may not be allowed to sit your examination.
11. Most universities have found that demand for engineering courses has decreased, while new subjects such as media studies have become very popular.
12. The amounts of money owed by some Third World countries were so enormous that in many cases it was decide


11e – Choose the best word


For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a,b or c:

1. In addition to reading books and journals, the other main source of information available to university students is the ________________ given by the academic staff.
a. lectures b. lessons c. classes
2. The atmospheres of most planets are not ________________, making it difficult for us to see the surface.
a. transparent b. lucid c. clear
3. Three terrorists managed to escape but all of them were ________________ within 24 hours and returned to prison.
a. trapped b. snared c. captured
4. Anybody who joins the army as a soldier has to accept that danger is an ________________ part of the job.
a. inside b. internal c. inherent
5. Students without the normal academic qualifications but who have relevant work experience may be offered a place on an easier diploma course on the ________________ towards an MBA.
a. journey b. direction c. route
6. In Egypt, water from the River Nile has been used for thousands of years to ________________ the dry desert land so that crops may be grown.
a. irrigate b. moisten c. fundamental
7. Improvements in quality control techniques have resulted in more high-quality products with very few ________________.
a. mistakes b. failures c. defects
8. As you can see from your handout, the first ________________ of figures down the left-hand side shows the growth in population.
a. line b. column c. string
9. The ________________ of men to women in China is unusual, in that there are more men than women.
a. ratio b. number c. quantity
10. According to a recent survey in Europe, most workers expressed a preference for increased ________________ time rather than the chance to do more overtime and earn extra money.
a. leisure b. hobby c. relaxation

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.


11f – Make a collocation


Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one
pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:

  • public , electrical , mental, television , academic , tropical , air , gas , career , cassette
  • circuits , cylinders , illness , fares , change , journals , tapes , stations , transport , rain forests

1. In modern cars, sound systems play CDs rather than _________________ _________________.

2. The _________________ _________________ of the Amazon contain over 10% of all known plant species found on Earth.

3. One of the most important developments in the history of the computer was the printing of tiny _________________ _________________ on small chips of silicon.

4. The explosion was caused by terrorists, who had packed a number of _________________ _________________ with home-made explosive.

5. Increasingly, cars are being excluded from city centres and improved _________________ _________________ is being developed instead.

6. For the most recent developments in any subject, _________________ _________________ are a much better place to look in than text books.

7. Psychologists have shown that living in very tall buildings can lead to depression, or even _________________ _________________.

8. Thanks to the introduction of satellite communications, we can confidently expect the growth in the number of _________________ _________________ to continue.

9. Increased competition among the airlines in Europe has meant that _________________ _________________ has become much cheaper.

10. After several years working as a lawyer, she decided to have a _________________ _________________ and become a university lecturer instead.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.