Excuse me, where are the dresses?
They’re at the end of this aisle, on the left. Can I help you with anything?
Yes, maybe. I’m not from around here, so I don’t know this store.
Well, I can help you with anything you need.
Fantastic. I’m actually down here for my brother’s wedding, and I need something to wear. I’ve just
started a new job and I haven’t had time to get anything yet. I’m looking for something smart. Maybe
a new dress.
Well what about this one?
I think it’s too hot for long sleeves.
Yes, well, this one has shorter sleeves, and it still has the bow, which I think is a nice detail.
Or there’s this patterned one?
I’m not keen on a pattern. 1 think I’ll go for the one with the bow. Do you have it in a size 10?
Let me have a look … Yes, here.
Great! I need a hat, and then I can try them on together.
What kind of hat are you looking for?
What about this one with the flower?
Yes, but if I may suggest, a taller hat would add to your height.
Yes, try this one.
I see what you mean!
We have this style with the single flower, or with a small bunch. And it comes with a wide or
I like the narrow brim, and just the one flower. Hmm, can I have a blue flower?
I ’m afraid it just comes in cream.
Well … it goes with the dress, anyway.
Great. I’ll place an order and have the hat sent to you. It’ll take about two days to be delivered.
Is that OK?
Yes, that ‘s fine.
I need to take down a few details for delivery. Can I take your name?
And the delivery address?
It’ll be my brother’s address. It’s 15 … no … 14 Briqhtwell Avenue.
14 … Can you spelt that, please?
Yes. B-R-l-G-H-T-W-E-L-L Avenue, Staybridge, Kent, DA4 7DF
And can I take a contact number?
Yes, my mobile is 03221 7774 10-3-double 2— 1 — triple 7-4).
No, it’s a 4 at the end.
Sorry. I’ve got it now. We can deliver on May the twelfth. We can’t specify an exact time, just
morning or afternoon.
Any time in the early morning is fine.
And how would you like to pay?
Great. That comes to £32.25.
I’m just going to try this dress on and then look for shoes. Where are the changing rooms?
They’re to the left of the store, right next to Customer Services.
And I want some shoes and accessories, too. Where can I find them?
The accessories are in the Womenswear department. The shoe department is right at the front of
the store, between Menswear and Home Furnishings. Oh, no, sorry … We’ve just moved the shoe
department for the summer season. It ’s now very near the changing rooms, actually, straight in
front of them.
Thanks so much for your help. And where can I pay for the other things?
The cash desk is at the front of the store, by the Menswear.
Welcome to San Fernando City Tours. I’m Mark, your tour guide. We have a lot to see in three
hours, so make sure you’re comfortable! We ll be travelling into the historical district first, and
then into the town centre. After that, it’s out to the harbour, and we’ll finish up at the lighthouse,
just past the harbour. That will take us up to midday, and after that, you’re free to do what you
want. At the lighthouse you’ll have a chance to visit the tea room and take photographs of the
magnificent coastline. Now, as we have only three hours, we won’t be able to take you round
the shopping district, but we think you’d prefer to look around the shops there in your own time,
San Fernando has some well-known tourist attractions – the lighthouse for example, and the
National Library. However, the little-known Military Museum is not to be missed. Be sure to visit
before you leave!
Now, there’s a lot to do in San Fernando. Indeed, there really is something for everyone! For those
who love the water. I can recommend a trip on the Seafarer, one of the most famous boats on the San
Fernando River. It does an evening trip with a three-course meal included. It’s great fun for everyone.
but especially for young people in their teens or twenties – after nine there’s a disco on the boat and
it gets really lively! Then there’s a climbing wall near the town centre. It’s incredibly popular, with a
large wall for expert climbers, and a smaller wall for novices. There’s also a junior wall and a creche,
so it’s a great day out for those of you with kids. And if you like walking, there are some great walking
tours. The City Sights Tour is highly recommended, as is the walking tour by the coast. But that one’s
only for the fit, not really suitable for children or the elderly. For more mature people or those less
able to get around. I would suggest a tour around the vineyards. It can be done in the luxury of a
coach, and it’s a wonderful way to explore the region’s wines.
Naturally, there’s a charge for all these attractions, but you can get fifteen per cent off if you have
an Explorer Pass. If you don’t have a pass but would like one, the driver here has application
forms. Just ask him for one and fill it out while on the tour. Then you hand it in to the tour office.
Normally, it costs $10. but this year it’s just $7! When you hand it in, you’ll get your picture taken
for the card on the spot, and then your card is ready to use! Remember to show it whenever you
pay for anything! The discounts apply not just to tourist attractions, but some bars and restaurants.
Basically, everywhere you see a red explorer symbol.
Ah … We’re coming up to the historical district now …
Hi, Katie. Hi, Ian. Come on in!
, Professor Gordon. We wanted to talk to you about our wildlife presentation next week.
Have you decided how to organise it?
Yes, Professor. At first, we were going to focus on the cat family, but then we decided to talk about
nocturnal animals instead.
Yes, good idea. And how is your planning going?
It’s going well. We think we have enough material for twenty minutes. The advantage is that there
are so many visual aids we can use. We’ve found lots on the Internet which we think will be really
interesting for people.
The problem is that this topic has been hard to narrow down. If anything, we’ve got too much
information for just twenty minutes. How do you think we could narrow it down further?
It is a broad subject. There are a few ways you could do it, but I’d recommend just looking at a
representative sample of nocturnal animals, just four or five.
Yes, and maybe we could choose one animal from each continent, or a land creature, a marine
creature and a winged animal.
I like the idea of separating it by different types of animals. And if we limit the detail, we’ll definitely
have enough time!
But don’t limit the detail too much. Also, think how you’re going to interest the audience.
Well, we’re going to have a picture for each animal so we can talk through the picture.
That’s a nice idea, but don’t limit yourself to pictures. If you can find any clips of the animals, use
them! Showing brief video clips can keep an audience interested.
I ’ll look on the Internet tonight.
And think of questions to ask your audience. People like to be involved!
Yes, that’s a great idea. Anyway, Professor, we’ve been practising our presentation and we’d like to
show you a small section. Is that OK?
Well, we just have a couple of minutes left, but go ahead!
Katie: Well, we were thinking of presenting each animal with a picture and describing their physical
Tutor: OK, but not in too much detail. That ‘s just background information.
Ian: We’ll start with the jaguar. I’ll introduce it by saying that the jaguar is a nocturnal animal and the only
species of the genus Panthera to be found in the Americas. Like any cat, it has whiskers and it can move
quickly. Its spine has great movement, meaning a jaguar can take long strides, sometimes up to five
and a half metres. This can make it a deadly predator as you can imagine! Moving on to the fur … Its fur
is quite distinct. The markings are like black doughnut-shaped spots on its otherwise yellow fur. People
often confuse them with the leopard for this reason. Now the tail is interesting. Although people think
that the tail has stripes on it, the fur on the tail actually is similar to the body with black circles around
the lower section. The jaguar is generally a creature to be feared. … Oh, yes, I should have mentioned
this earlier. Sorry. Like most cats, it has sharp, retractable claws.
Tutor: Yes, that’s fine, but be careful. The jaguar is usually thought of as nocturnal, but strictly speaking, it’s
crepuscular, in other words, most active between dusk and dawn. But as long as you mention this, you
can put it under the umbrella of nocturnal. Is that all?
Katie: Yes, I think so. Thanks, Professor.
Lecturer: The subject of this series of lectures is horology, the science of measuring time, and we’ll be looking at
a few basic concepts in this lecture.
The measurement of time has come a long way since ancient times. It began with such devices as
the sundial, where the position of the sun’s shadow marked the hour. Daylight was divided into twelve
temporary hours’ – these temporary hours were longer in the summer and shorter in the winter,
simply because the amount of daylight changes with the seasons.
The earliest sundial we know comes from Egypt. It was made of stone and is thought to date from
1500 BC. Sundials were used throughout the classical world, and with time, evolved into more elaborate
devices that could take into account seasonal changes and geographical positioning and reflect the
hours accurately, no matter what the time of year. This was quite an achievement in technology. Today,
sundials can be seen as decorative pieces in many gardens.
In the eleventh century, the Chinese invented the first mechanical clocks. They were large and
expensive, and certainly not intended for individuals. However, this is the type of clock we are familiar
with today. There have been many developments in clocks and watches since then, and they have been
greatly improved, but if your clock or watch makes a ticking sound, then it could well be based on the
mechanical movements the Chinese developed a thousand years ago!
However, timekeeping has moved on from the mechanical clock. Time has become so important
that there is a series of atomic clocks around the world which measure International Atomic Time.
Even though many countries have their own calendars, globalisation has made it essential that we
measure time uniformly, so that we know, for example, that when it’s 6 a.m. in the United Kingdom, it’s
2 p.m. in Beijing. This standard was set in 1958. Now these atomic clocks are situated in over seventy
laboratories all over the world.
There is so much to cover about the development of time measurement that I would like to refer
you to the reading list. The core text is The Development of Time: Theory and Practice, but there are
many other useful texts. A good grounding in the subject is given in Understanding Time by J. R. Beale.
Although some sections lack detailed analyses, it does offer a good foundation. Also Time: Concepts
and Conventions is quite a useful read. You might think from the title that it is about the philosophy of
time, but this isn’t the case. Rather, it gives a good description of how different countries have different
approaches to time in terms of calendars and days. Lastly. The Story of Time by David Harris analyses
time in great detail, and I would recommend this book if you are aiming to specialise in horology.
Now, we’re going to continue with an in-depth look at lunar and solar cycles.