• chain reaction (chain reactions)
NOUN A chain reaction is a series of events, each of which causes the next.
■ Whenever recession strikes, a chain reaction is set into motion.
■ [+ of\ The powder immediately ignited and set off a chain reaction of explosions.
• consequence (consequences)
NOUN The consequences of something are the results or effects of it. * [+ of\ Her lawyer said she understood the consequences of her actions and was prepared to go to jail.
■ [+ for] An economic crisis may have tremendous consequences for our global security.
• impact (impacts)
NOUN The impact that something has on a situation, process, or person is a sudden and powerful effect that it has on them.
■ [+ on] the mining industry’s devastating impact on the environment
■ an area where technology can make a real impact
• influence (influences)
NOUN To have an influence on people or situations means to affect what they do or what happens.
■ [+ on] Van Gogh had a major influence on the development of modern painting.
■ Many other medications have an influence on cholesterol levels.
• outcome (outcomes)
NOUN The outcome of an activity, process, or situation is the situation that exists at the end of it.
■ Mr. Singh said he was pleased with the outcome.
■ [+ of] It’s too early to know the outcome of her illness.
■ a successful outcome
• repercussion (repercussions)
NOUN If an action or event has repercussions, it causes unpleasant things to happen some time after the original
action or event. [FORMAL]
■ It was an effort which was to have painful repercussions.
■ Members of congress were warned of possible repercussions if their vote went through.
• affect (affects, affecting, affected)
VERB If something affects a person or thing, it influences them or causes them to change in some way.
■ Nicotine from cigarettes can adversely affect the heart.
■ More than seven million people have been affected by drought.
■ The new law will directly affect thousands of people.
• contribute (contributes, contributing, contributed)
VERB If something contributes to an event or situation, it is one of the causes of it.
■ [+ to] The report says design faults in both the vessels contributed to the tragedy.
■ [V-ing] Stress, both human and mechanical, may also be a contributing factor.
• determine (determines, determining, determined)
VERB If a particular factor determines the nature of a thing or event, it causes it to be of a particular kind.
■ IQ is strongly determined by genetic factors.
■ [+ whether] What determines whether you are a career success ora failure?
• generate (generates, generating, generated)
VERB To generate something means to cause it to begin and develop.
■ The Employment Minister said the reforms would generate new jobs.
■ the excitement generated by the changes in Eastern Europe
• induce (induces, inducing, induced)
VERB To induce a state or condition means to cause it.
■ Doctors said surgery could induce a heart attack.
■ an economic crisis induced by high oil prices
• provoke (provokes, provoking, provoked)
VERB If something provokes a reaction, it causes it.
■ His election success has provoked a shocked reaction.
■ The destruction of the mosque has provoked anger throughout the Muslim world.
• result (results, resulting, resulted)
VERB If something results in a particular situation or event, it causes that situation or event to happen.
■ [+ in] Fifty per cent of road accidents result in head injuries.
■ [+ in] Continuous rain resulted in the land becoming submerged.
• stem (stems, stemming, stemmed)
VERB If a condition or problem stems from something, it was caused originally by that thing.
■ [+ from] Much of the instability stems from the economic effects of the war.
■ [+ from] Much of London’s energy and resilience stems from the fact that London has always been a city that relied on migrants.
• trigger (triggers, triggering, triggered)
VERB If something triggers an event or situation, it causes it to begin to happen or exist.
■ the incident which triggered the outbreak of the First World War
■ The current recession was triggered by a slump in consumer spending.