Adding points:

ADVERB Furthermore is used to introduce a piece of information or opinion that adds to or supports the previous one.
■ Furthermore, they claim that any such interference is completely ineffective.
■ Furthermore, even a well-timed therapy intervention may fail.

ADVERB You use moreover to introduce a piece of information that adds to or supports the previous statement.
■ The young find everything so simple. The young, moreover, see it as their duty to be happy and do their best to be so.
■ A new species, it was unique to Bali – moreover, it is this island’s only endemic bird.

Contrasting points:

ADVERB You use nevertheless when saying something that contrasts with what has just been said.
■ Most marriages fail after between five and nine years. Nevertheless, people continue to get married.
■ There had been no indication of any loss of mental faculties. His whole life had nevertheless been clouded with a series of illnesses.

CONJUNCTION You use whereas to introduce a comment which contrasts with what is said in the main clause.
■ Pensions are linked to inflation, whereas they should be linked to the cost of living.
■ Whereas the population of working age increased by 1 million between 1981 and 1986, today it is barely growing.

CONJUNCTION Whilst means the same as while. It is used mainly in British English in form al and literary contexts.
■ Whilst droughts are not uncommon in many parts of the country, the coastal region remains humid throughout the year.
■ Whilst every care has been taken to ensure accuracy, the publishers cannot accept legal responsibility for any problems that arise.

Referring to sequence:

PRONOUN When two people, things, or groups have just been mentioned, you can refer to the first of them as the former.
■ He writes about two series of works: the Caprichos and the Disparates. The former are a series of etchings done by Goya.
■ The wife may choose the former and the husband the latter.

ADJECTIVE You use initial to describe something that happens at the beginning of a process.
■ The initial reaction has been excellent.
■ The aim of this initial meeting is to clarify the issues.

PRONOUN When two people, things, or groups have just been mentioned, you can refer to the second of them as the latter.
■ At school, he enjoyed football and boxing; the latter remained a lifelong habit.
■ Without hesitation they chose the latter.

ADJECTIVE You use prior to indicate that something has already happened, or must happen, before another event takes place.
■ Prior knowledge of the program is not essential.
■ For the prior year, they reported net income of $1.1 million. PHRASE If something happens prior to a
particular time or event, it happens before that time or event.
■ Prior to his Japan trip, he went to New York.
■ This is the preliminary investigation prior to the official inquiry.

ADVERB Respectively means in the same order as the items that you have just mentioned.
■ Their sons, Ben and Jonathan, were three and six respectively.
■ Obesity and high blood pressure occurred in 16 per cent and 14 percent of Australian adults, respectively.

ADJECTIVE You use subsequent to describe something that happened or existed after the time or event that has just been referred to.
■ the increase of population in subsequent years
■ Those concerns were overshadowed by subsequent events.


• on balance
PHRASE You can say on balance to indicate that you are stating an opinion after considering all the relevant facts or arguments.
■ On balance he agreed with Christine.

ADVERB You use overall to indicate that you are talking about a situation in general or about the whole of something.
■ The review omitted some studies. Overall, however, the evidence was persuasive.
■ The college has few ways to assess the quality of education overall.

Expressing consequence and concluding:

ADVERB You use hence to indicate that the statement you are about to make is a consequence of what you have just said.
■ The trade imbalance is likely to rise again in 1990. Hence a new set of policy actions will be required soon.
■ European music happens to use a scale of eight notes, hence the use of the term octave.

ADVERB You use thus to show that what you are about to mention is the result or consequence of something else that you have just mentioned.
■ Even in a highly skilled workforce some people w ill be more capable and thus better paid than others.
■ women’s access to the basic means of production and thus to political power