1 ADVERB Absolutely means totally and completely.
■ Jill is absolutely right.
■ I absolutely refuse to do it.
■ There is absolutely no difference!
2 ADVERB Some people say absolutely as an emphatic way of saying yes or of agreeing with someone. They say absolutely not as an emphatic way of saying no.
■ ‘It’s worrying, isn’t it?’ – ‘Absolutely.’

ADVERB You use approximately to show that a number or amount is not exact or accurate.
■ Approximately $150 million is to be spent on improvements.
■ Each session lasted approximately 30 to 40 minutes.

ADVERB You use comparatively when you are contrasting two or more things or people.
■ a comparatively small nation
■ children who find it comparatively easy to make and keep friends

ADVERB If you say that ideally a particular thing should happen or be done, you mean that this is what would be best, but you know that this may not be possible or practical.
■ People should, ideally, eat much less fat.
■ The restructuring ideally needs to be completed this year.

ADVERB If a situation w ill continue indefinitely, it will continue for ever or until someone decides to change it or end it.
■ The visit has now been postponed indefinitely.
■ The school has been closed indefinitely.

ADVERB If something w ill inevitably happen, it is certain to happen and cannot be prevented or avoided.
■ Technological changes will inevitably lead to unemployment.
■ Inevitably, the proposal is running into difficulties.

ADVERB You use interestingly to introduce a piece of information that you think is interesting or unexpected.
■ Interestingly enough, a few weeks later, he remarried.

ADVERB If you say that something is not necessarily the case, you mean that it may not be the case or is not always the case.
■ A higher fee does not necessarily mean a better course.

ADVERB Particularly means more than usual or more than other things.
■ Progress has been particularly disappointing.
■ I was not particularly interested in the conversation.

ADVERB If you say that something is presumably the case, you mean that you think it is very likely to be the case, although you are not certain.
■ He had gone to the reception desk, presumably to check out.

ADVERB Provisionally means arranged or appointed for the present, with the possibility of being changed in the future.
■ The seven republics had provisionally agreed to the new relationship on November 14th.
■ A meeting is provisionally scheduled for early next week.

ADVERB Relatively means to a certain degree, especially when compared with other things of the same kind.
■ The sums needed are relatively small.
■ Such an explanation makes it relatively easy for a child to absorb metaphysical information.

ADVERB Something that is supposedly true, is said to be true by some people.
■ He was supposedly a tough man to work for.
■ They supposedly agreed to leave their homes and property and never return.

ADVERB You use surprisingly to introduce a piece of information that you think is unexpected or unusual.
■ He did surprisingly well in the election last year.
■ Surprisingly, he did as she asked.

ADVERB If something is undoubtedly true, it is certainly so.
■ Undoubtedly, political and economic factors have played their part.
■ These sort of statistics are undoubtedly alarming.
■ It is undoubtedly true that harder times are on the way.


Track 28

1 Surprisingly, the prime minister has been elected for a second term.
2 Interestingly, more young people voted in this election than in the previous one.
3 Absolutely! I’d love to return to Africa some day.
4 Supposedly, travel broadens the mind.
5 Undoubtedly, cooking with natural ingredients is better for your health.
6 Inevitably, the cost of fuel will rise.
7 Presumably, fewer people will travel by car if petrol becomes too expensive.


Track 29

  1. absolutely
  2. necessarily
  3. particularly
  4. presumably
  5. supposedly
  6. surprisingly



Track 30

Tell me about the house or flat you live in.

How do you feel about living there?

Is the decoration or appearance of the place you live important to you?

When choosing things for your flat, is the appearance of an object more important to you than how well it works?


Track 31

Hello. My name is Susan Davie. Can you tell me your full name, please?

Thanks. Can I please see your identification?… Thanks, that’s great. I’m going to ask you some questions about yourself now.

Tell me about your favourite film or television programme.

How do you think television has changed since you were a child?

Are there any types of programmes that you don’t like to watch?

I’d like to ask you a few questions about transport. How do you normally travel to your work or place of study?

How do people in your country normally travel?

How easy is it to get around in your country?

We’re now going to talk about places of interest in your country. What do you think is the most interesting building or monument in your country?

Do you prefer historic building styles to modern architecture?

To what extent do people in your country value traditional architecture?