Nouns for ideas:
• concept (concepts)
NOUN A concept is an idea or abstract principle.
■ [+ of] She added that the concept of arranged marriages is misunderstood in the west.
■ basic legal concepts
• conjecture (conjectures)
NOUN A conjecture is a conclusion that is based on information that is not certain or complete.
■ That was a conjecture, not a fact.
■ Ozone creation is a very largescale natural process and the importance of humangenerated CFCs in reducing it is largely a matter of conjecture.
NOUN A consensus is general agreement among a group of people.
■ [+ amongst] The consensus amongst the world’s scientists is that the world is likely to warm up over the next few decades.
■ [+ on] So far, the Australians have been unable to come to a uniform consensus on the issue.
• dogma (dogmas)
NOUN If you refer to a belief or a system of beliefs as a dogma, you disapprove of it because people are expected to accept that it is true, without questioning it.
■ Their political dogma has blinded them to the real needs of the country.
■ He stands for freeing the country from the grip of dogma.
• framework (frameworks)
NOUN A framework is a particular set of rules, ideas, or beliefs which you use in order to deal with problems or to decide what to do.
■ [+ for] The purpose of the chapter is to provide a framework for thinking about why exchange rates change.
■ Doctors need a clear legal framework to be able to deal with difficult clinical decisions.
• ideology (ideologies)
NOUN An ideology is a set of beliefs, especially the political beliefs on which people, parties, or countries base their actions.
■ [+ of] Fifteen years after the president embraced the ideology of privatization, the people were worse off than ever.
■ North Carolina more than any other southern state, is the home of two disparate, yet equally powerful, political ideologies.
• model (models)
NOUN A model of a system or process is a theoretical description that can help you understand how the system or process works, or how it might work.
■ [+ of] Darwin eventually put forward a model of biological evolution.
• perspective (perspectives)
NOUN A particular perspective is a particular way of thinking about something, especially one that is influenced by your beliefs or experiences.
■ [+ on] two different perspectives on the nature of adolescent development
■ [+ of] Most literature on the subject of immigrants in France has been written from the perspective of the French themselves.
■ I would like to offer a historical perspective.
• stance (stances)
NOUN Your stance on a particular matter is
your attitude to it.
■ [+ on] The Congress had agreed to reconsider its stance on the armed struggle.
■ They have maintained a consistently neutral stance.
■ [+ towards] His stance towards the story is quite similar to ours.
Adjectives for describing ideas:
ADJECTIVE If you describe something as ambiguous, you mean that it is unclear or confusing because it can be understood in more than one way.
■ This agreement is very ambiguous and open to various interpretations.
■ The Foreign Secretary’s remarks clarify an ambiguous statement issued earlier this week.
ADJECTIVE If someone is biased, they prefer one group of people to another and behave unfairly as a result.
■ [+ against] He seemed a bit biased against women in my opinion.
■ [+ towards] University funding was tremendously biased towards scientists.
■ examples of inaccurate and biased reporting
ADJECTIVE A compelling argument or reason is one that convinces you that something is true or that something should be done.
■ Forensic evidence makes a suicide verdict the most compelling answer to the mystery of his death.
■ The evidence was so compelling that the government did not have to force this change; it was willingly accepted.
ADJECTIVE Credible means able to be trusted or believed.
■ [+ to] BaronessThatcher’s claims seem credible to many.
■ But in order to maintain a credible threat of intervention, we have to maintain a credible alliance.
ADJECTIVE Something that is flawed has a mark, fault, or mistake in it.
■ the unique beauty of a flawed object
■ These tests were so seriously flawed as to render the results meaningless.
■ The problem is the original forecast was based on flawed assumptions.
ADJECTIVE A valid argument, comment, or idea is based on sensible reasoning.
■ They put forward many valid reasons for not exporting.
■ Some of these arguments are valid.
■ This is a perfectly valid approach, but it has its drawbacks.