2a – Fill in the gaps

From the following list, use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word:

achieve (v) , automatic (adj) , conceive (v) , create (v) , ensue (v) , equilibrium (n) , manipulate (v) , mathematics (n) , innovative (adj) , period (n) , precede (v) , section (n) , series (n) , stable (adj) , tradition (n)

1. In order to be successful, some politicians _______________________ other people to get what they 1want.

2. Japanese and Korean companies have invested heavily in the UK, _______________________ thousands of new jobs.

3. The Internet was first _____________________ of as a way of linking computers in the USA together.

4. Serious unrest and rioting _____________________ as a result of the decision to ignore the result of the election.

5. Since consumers are always demanding new products, companies which can be __________________ are more likely to succeed.

6. Most planes today are controlled not by human pilots but by a computer system known as an ________________ pilot, which is even responsible for taking off and landing.

7. Most employers insist that their employees have qualifications in English and _______________.

8. Some academics have argued that standards have been falling because more students are _______________ first class degrees.

9. Over a _________________ of twenty years, the economy grew at an average of 8% per year.

10. The price of a product will not change if there is _________________ between the supply and the demand for that product.

11. By ____________________, wedding guests in most cultures give presents or money to the newlymarried couple.

12. In addition to the regular lectures, we have a __________________ of public lectures given by guest speakers from other universities.

13. Although the arrival of coffee in Britain ___________________ that of tea, it is the second drink which is the more popular today.

14. Reports are usually divided into separate _____________________ with headings such as ‘Findings’ and ‘Conclusions.’

15. After a very difficult night, his blood pressure became ___________________ again and his family were allowed to visit him.



2b – Choose the right word

In each of the sentences below, decide which bold word is more suitable.

1. A new moon occurs / takes place every 28 days.

2. Students should not be inert / passive but should try instead to contribute as much as possible to discussions in seminar groups.

3. On the first day, the course director and the subject tutor explained their respective / single roles to the new students.

4. It is now possible to infer / imply a link between using mobile phones and contracting some forms of cancer.

5. The fact that population growth is still accelerating / catching up is one of the most important problems we face.

6. Most universities need to earn money from private sources, but the important / major part of their funding still comes from the government.

7. Expenditure on weapons such as guns, tanks and aeroplanes consumes a large piece / portion of a country’s wealth.

8. Because foreign exchange rates ebb and flow / fluctuate, it is not always possible for exporters to know how much money they will receive from sales.

9. Member countries award / contribute money to the United Nations to pay for the running of the organization.

10. The main concentration / focus of Greenpeace is on problems concerning pollution.

11. Although their plan / design was often very good, the quality of many British cars tended to be poor.

12. Although it is very expensive, it is possible to convert / exchange other forms of carbon into diamonds.

13. Prehistoric man could not think / comprehend why the moon appears to grow bigger and then smaller each month.

14. In some situations, a law court can authorise / let the police to enter a house without the owner’s permission.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.



2c – Finish the sentence

Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath:

1. In 1905, Einstein published the first part of his theory…

2. Environmentalists point out that electric cars just shift…

3. Most metals expand…

4. As a result of the intense…

5. Fifty years ago, most smokers were not aware…

6. The new grading machine has the function…

7. In many universities, there is a coffee bar adjacent…

8. After studying for two hours, it becomes difficult to concentrate…

9. Some children show a great deal of maturity…

10. Sadly, according to government statistics,…

11. In the seventeenth century, Galileo demonstrated…

12. In the 1980’s, the US and Soviet governments made the crucial…

13. Politicians often complain that newspapers distort…

14. The history of the Americas is usually from seen from the perspective…

15. An already difficult operation was complicated…

a. …of the dangers of smoking.

b. …at a young age, while others may continue to be irresponsible.

c. …to the library where students can take a break.

d. …the pollution problem from the car itself to the electricity station.

e. …that all objects (heavy or light) fall at the same speed.

f. …heat of the fire, the front half of the train was completely destroyed.

g. …what they say so that the readers cannot read the truth.

h. …of relativity, which completely changed our ideas of time and space.

i. …of the European immigrants, rather than from that of the original inhabitants.

j. …on your work and so it is a good idea to take a break.

k. …when they are heated.

l. …of separating the larger pieces of metal from the smaller pieces.

m. …over 30% of marriages end in divorce within five years.

n. …decision to reduce the number of atomic weapons.

o. …by the fact that the patient had a history of heart disease.


2d – Word substitution

From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:

affect (v) , capillary (n) , notion (n) , decade (n) , emphasise (v) , expose (v) , generate (v) , consequent (adj) , pertinent (adj) , predict (v) , select (v) , signify (v) , structure (n) , undergo (v)

1. Over the previous ten years, we have seen an enormous growth in the number of home personal computers.

2. Lecturers often speak more loudly and more slowly when they want to stress an important point.

3. One important function of newspapers is to uncover dishonest behaviour and wrong-doing by those in power.

4. The organisation of the company has changed completely, with far fewer senior managers.

5. The decision to give longer prison sentences indicated a hardening of the government’s attitude towards drug offenders.

6. The new computer system created a lot of interest among potential customers.

7. When the government increased the tax on petrol, there was a resultant rise in transport costs.

8. In the first instance, the blood passes out of the heart, through the lungs and along the arteries before reaching the small blood vessels within the skin.

9. Until the sixteenth century, the idea that the Earth moves around the Sun was regarded as a ridiculous idea, whereas today we accept this concept as completely normal.

10. Pollution is a problem which has an effect on every country today.

11. Most economists forecast that China will become a leading world economy in the twenty-first century.

12. One difficult aspect of writing an essay is selecting material which is relevant to the topic and excluding irrelevant information.

13. The company has experienced a number of significant changes in the last few years.

14. The first thing to do is to choose the courses which you would like to study and then look at each university prospectus

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.


2e – Choose the best word

For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a,b or c:

1. Although he had no _____________ injuries, doctors later found that he was suffering from internal bleeding.
a. outside
b. external
c. outlying

2. There is a marked ______________ between the poverty of the poorest members of society and the affluence of the richest.
a. opposite
b. contrast
c. variation

3. The allied forces launched ______________ bombing raids on several important sites in and around the enemy capital.
a. simultaneous
b. contemporary
c. coincidental

4. Students are often advised to look at the first and last ______________ of a book before attempting to read it in detail.
a. headings
b. chapters
c. titles

5. Although this is far from certain, the ______________ age of the universe is about 4.6 billion years.
a. approximate
b. general
c. rough

6. Some economists argue that new ______________ causes unemployment while others feel that it allows more jobs to be created.
a. science
b. engineering
c. technology

7. After you have submitted your application, the university will attempt to ______________ that the information you have supplied is correct.
a. verify
b. certify
c. investigate

8. Young children go through a ______________ in their development when they try to copy everything they hear.
a. process
b. phase
c. transition

9. In the some countries, there is no tax on books on the ______________ that education should not be taxed.
a. principle
b. idea
c. concept

10. Further information can be ______________ from the nearest British Council office.
a. obtained
b. found
c. got

11. As everyone knows, certain metals such as iron and steel can have a __________________ field while others like copper cannot.
a. electrical
b. magnetic
c. chemical

12. Just as dividing up an orange into _____________ makes it easier to eat, always try to break up a longer piece of text into small blocks of words.
a. segments
b. pieces
c. sections

13. One problem for any teacher is that each student has his/her own ______________ needs.
a. separate
b. individual
c. distinctive

14. Good theories are important of course, but we must have _______________ evidence to support them.
a. empirical
b. true
c. realistic


2f – Make a collocation

Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:

  • endangered , sequence of , separate , devote , highly , transmit , assert , inhibit , precise , reacted , verbal , natural , economically
  • events , sophisticated , angrily , signals , species , feasible , details , agreement , the right , entities , phenonema , growth , time and money

1. In spite of advances in technology, we are still at risk from _________________ _________________ such as earthquakes and floods.

2. One threat facing companies today is _________________ _________________ computer ‘hackers’ who break into the most advanced computer systems.

3. The accident was the result of a tragic _________________ _________________ which could have been prevented with better safety procedures.

4. The company _________________ _________________ to the suggestion that its products were unsafe.

5. There is considerable doubt over whether the proposal by the American government for a manned trip to Mars is technically and _________________ _________________

6. Tigers (and other large cats) are now an _________________ _________________ and may disappear altogether in the future.

7. After the Second World War, African nations started to _________________ _________________ to become independent.

8. In law, a _________________ _________________ even though it is not written down like a formal contract, is still a contract.

9. While she refused to give any _________________ _________________, the Minister admitted that several people had been arrested.

10. In order to produce new medicines, drug companies have to _________________ _________________ on a huge scale to their research and development activities.

11. Most economists believe that high taxes _________________ _________________ in the economy.

12. In spite of its age, the satellite is still continuing to _________________ _________________ to Earth.

13. Are the mind and body the same thing or are they two _________________ _________________?




1. manipulate, 2. creating, 3. conceived, 4. ensued, 5. innovative, 6. automatic, 7. mathematics, 8. achieving, 9. period, 10. equilibrium, 11. tradition, 12. series, 13. preceded, 14. sections, 15. stable

1. occurs, 2. passive, 3. respective, 4. infer, 5. accelerating, 6. major, 7. portion, 8. fluctuate, 9. contribute, 10. focus, 11. design, 12. convert, 13. comprehend, 14. authorise

1. h, 2. d, 3. k, 4. f, 5. a, 6. l, 7. c, 8. j, 9. b, 10. m, 11. e, 12. n, 13. g, 14. I, 15. o

1. decade, 2. emphasise, 3. expose, 4. structure, 5. signified, 6. generated, 7. consequent, 8. capillaries, 9. notion, 10. affects, 11. predict, 12. pertinent, 13. undergone, 14. select

1. external, 2. contrast, 3. simultaneous, 4. chapters, 5. approximate, 6. technology, 7. verify, 8. phase, 9. principle, 10. obtained, 11. magnetic, 12. segments, 13. individual, 14. empirical

1. natural phenomena, 2. highly sophisticated, 3. sequence of events, 4. reacted angrily, 5. economically feasible, 6. endangered species, 7. assert the right, 8. verbal agreement, 9. precise details, 10. devote time and money, 11. inhibit growth, 12. transmit signals, 13. separate entities