Track 35

1 Government cuts to public spending triggered a second economic downturn.

2 Many environmentalists believe that the offshore oil industry has resulted in significant damage to marine life.

3 Interestingly, the Second World War contributed to the expansion of female employment, in particular, the increase in numbers of women doing jobs typically reserved for men.

4 A number of commentators have said that the recent public disorder stems from the high rates of youth unemployment.

5 Some people even believe that your genes determine whether or not you succeed in life.

6 The return of wolves to southern regions of Europe has provoked fear and anger among many farmers.

7 There is evidence that some skin conditions can result from excessive cleanliness.

  • trigger noun  /ˈtrɪɡə(r)/
  • environmentalists /ɪnˌvaɪrənˈmentəlɪst/
  • marine adjective  /məˈriːn/
  • offshore /ˌɒfˈʃɔː(r)/; /ˌɔːfˈʃɔːr/; /ˌɑːfˈʃɔːr/
  •  commentators /ˈkɒmənteɪtə(r)/; /ˈkɑːmənteɪtər/
  • disorder /dɪsˈɔːdə(r)/;/dɪsˈɔːrdər/
  • provoke /prəˈvəʊk/

Track 36

Speaker 1: My uncle turns 65 next year, at which point he’ll presumably retire.
Speaker 2: Do I think nurses should be better paid? Absolutely!
Speaker 3: My employers have provisionally agreed to give me time off to complete my studies.
Speaker 4: Supposedly, Jim wrote the essay himself, but it looks to me like he had a bit of help.
Speaker 5:  Ideally, I’d like to buy a flat of my own, but unfortunately, it looks like, I’ll have to rent for a few more years.
Speaker 6: Inevitably, the new supermarket is going to bring more cars into the area.
Speaker 7: I’d like to stay in Japan indefinitely, but I’m not sure that’s going to be possible.


Track 37

I guess one of the most difficult dilemmas I’ve faced concerns a colleague Lydia, who also happens to be a friend. I’d been given the task of organizing a series of social events for a group of schoolchildren visiting from Germany and I thought it would be a great idea to work with Lydia, so I persuaded my boss to assign her to me as an assistant. I have to say, it was a mistake from the start. Lydia was so disorganized, kept forgetting what she was to do, lost track of what she’d paid for and so on. I suppose, looking back she just didn’t have the experience or the skills for the job. Don’t get me wrong, she was a great laugh and we’re still friends, but I had to work overtime to sort everything out. Looking back I can see that I didn’t really address the problem directly. I just covered up for her mistakes and made sure the programme ran smoothly. I didn’t want my boss to intervene. I suppose I felt partly to blame because I hadn’t really thought carefully about whether she was really suitable for the job. Anyway, that experience has taught me that it’s safer to keep friendship and work matters separate.


Track 38

1 I don’t really subscribe to the notion that men and women have fundamentally different styles of communication. Where’s the evidence?

2 You really have to question the credibility of some of the conspiracy theories surrounding the assassination.

3 I didn’t think we should invest in developing a new widget, but he put forward a valid argument and I’m now prepared to go along with it.

4 The accusation that the chief executive knew about the illegal activities of his employees is based on pure conjecture.

5 The case for independence is now so compelling I can’t see an alternative course of action.

6 The minister’s stance of deregulation is bound to be biased – he’s got a considerable financial interest in the industry