adapt [adaept] v.
To adapt means to change in order to deal with a new situation or addition.
—♦ When he went to the new town, he had to adapt to all the weather changes.
biological [b aiald d 3 ikal] adj.
Biological describes the process of life and living things.
—►In science, we learned about the biological process of bacterial growth.
cellular [seljalar] adj.
When something is cellular, it relates to the cells of animals or plants.
-> She used a microscope to see the activity at a cellular level.
dynamic [dainaem ik] adj.
When people are dynamic, they are lively and have creative ideas.
—►The new, dynamic employee came up with a good way to juggle his work load.
fantasy [faentasi] n.
A fantasy is a pleasant situation that people think about but is unlikely to happen.
-+ Becoming an astronaut is a fantasy shared by many children.
heredity [hiredati] n.
Heredity is the process of passing on features from parents to children.
—►The boy’s face is similar to his father’s because of heredity.
internal [intarnl] adj.
When something is internal, it exists or happens inside a person, object, or place.
—*We removed the outer case to reveal the computer’s internal wires.
minimal [nm nam al] adj.
When something is minimal, it is very small.
-* My lazy husband does a minimal amount of work around the house.
pioneer [paianfar] n.
A pioneer is a person who is the first to discover or be involved in something.
—►He was a pioneer of computer programming.
prescribe [priskraib] v.
To prescribe medicine means to tell someone to take it.
—►When I was sick, the doctor prescribed me flu medicine.respective [rispektiv] adj.
When things are respective, they relate separately to each person just mentioned.
—»The boxers were told to return to their respective corners.
revive [rivaiv] V.
To revive someone or something means to restore health or life to them.
—*She revived the feeling of warmth in her leg by rubbing it softly.
rigid [rid3id] adj.
When rules or systems are rigid, they are severe because they cannot be changed.
—►Societies often have rigid rules about the way that people are supposed to act.
SeC|lienee [si:kwens] n.
A sequence is a number of events or things that come one after another.
—►The dominos fell in a sequence of one after another.
substitute [sAbstiV’u:t] v.
To substitute something or someone means to have them take the place of another.
-* When I ran out of juice, I had to substitute water to drink in the morning.
SUrgeon [ss:rd3 an] n.
A surgeon is a doctor who is trained to do surgery.
—►The surgeon operated on the old man’s heart.
therapy [eerapi] n.
Therapy is treatment for a particular physical or mental illness or condition.
—►After she broke her legs, she used physical therapy to learn how to walk again.
transfer [transfer] V.
To transfer something means to move it from one place to another.
—►The family transferred the groceries from the shopping cart to the car.
transition [treenzijan] n.
A transition is a process where there is a change from one form to another.
-*■ The weather gets colder during the transition from summer to autumn.
transplant [traensplaent] n.
A transplant is an operation in which a damaged part of one’s body is replaced.
—*■The sick child needed a heart transplant to live.


The First Organ Transplant
In 1954, a man named Richard was dying of kidney disease. He wouldn’t survive for long
unless he got a new kidney right away. Richard’s twin brother, Robert, was willing to donate
one of his kidneys to his dying brother. At the time, however, no doctor had ever performed
a successful internal organ transplant. The idea of taking an organ out of one person and
putting it into another was just a fantasy. But the brothers decided to be brave and found a
doctor who could make organ transplants a reality.
Since Richard and Robert were twins, their heredity was identical. They had the exact
same biological traits. Even their kidneys were identical on the cellular level. Therefore,
Robert’s working kidney could be substituted for Richard’s bad one. Richard’s body could
adapt to the new organ if the operation was done correctly.
The twins went to Dr. Murray, who was a pioneer of new surgical methods. His dynamic
team of surgeons performed the transplant. Dr. Murray made sure his surgeons followed
a rigid sequence of directions so that no mistakes were made. First, they made a minimal
cut in Richard’s side and removed the bad kidney. Then, they made another small cut in
Robert’s side, removed his kidney, and transferred it into Richard’s body. Finally, they
sewed up the respective cuts. The entire operation only took about one hour.
After the surgery, it was clear that both brothers were going to be OK. The operation was
confirmed a success. Richard’s new kidney worked great! Doctors prescribed medicine for
the pain caused by the surgery. Since Richard was still weak, he used physical therapy to
revive his strength. At last, Richard’s transition into
a healthy, happy person was complete.
Dr. Murray became a hero in the medical
world. His success gave other doctors
confidence to try organ transplants themselves.
Now, doctors perform life-saving transplants
and surgeries every day.