3a – Fill in the gaps

From the following list, use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word:

co-ordinate (v) , discrete (adj) , estimate (n) , geography (n) , norm (n) , pole (n) , preposition (n) , rational (adj) , scheme (n) , source (n) , task (n) , underlie (v)

1. Paying for large purchases by credit card instead of in cash has become the ___________________ in many parts of the world.

2. Although speech is mostly continuous sound, written language is divided up into ___________________ units which we call words.

3. One of the roles of the Managing Director is to ___________________ the work of different departments to ensure that they work well together.

4. In __________________, we study the physical features of the world – such as rivers and mountains – and how we make use of them.

5. The purpose of a bibliography at the end of an essay is to show the ____________________ of information used in writing the essay.

6. Remember that some verbs may need to be followed by a _____________________, such as lead to, result in, and so on.

7. Although we cannot be sure, most ___________________ point to a significant increase in average air temperatures in the next 100 years.

8. Everyone knows that diseases such as malaria are on the increase again, but what we are not so sure about is the ___________________ cause of this.

9. Most economic theories assume that people act on a ___________________ basis, but this doesn’t take account of the fact that we often use our emotions instead.

10. Most countries in the Far East have developed very quickly, while at the opposite __________________ many Third World countries have not grown at all.

11. The government has launched a new ___________________ aimed at reducing youth unemployment.

12. While half of the students were responsible for writing the questionnaires, the others had the __________________ of analysing the data.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.



3b – Choose the right word

In each of the sentences below, decide which word in bold is more suitable.

1. If somebody has a diet which is deficient / inadequate in vitamins, he/she may suffer poor health as a result.

2. Although the characters were very convincing, the tale / plot was so weak that the film was a failure.

3. The transition / transit from a communist to a free-market economy has been very difficult for a number of countries.

4. Students usually dress casually at university, but this style of dress is not correct / appropriate when they start work.

5. The opinions expressed in a newspaper usually reflect the views of the proprietor / landlord.

6. Extreme religious groups living in isolated communes / societies have been responsible for a number of violent crimes.

7. In order to discuss the implications of the crisis, the President convened / gathered a meeting of his top advisors at the White House.

8. Because of the growth in the number of communication stations / satellites in space, viewers have access to more television channels.

9. An important social and political topic / issue in many developed countries is the growing number of old people.

10. Sometimes, unexpected economic changes force an organisation to deviate / divert from its original business plan.

11. There are many reasons behind the success of the fastest-growing economies, but one common factor / idea seems to be high levels of education.

12. Because the weather was so bad, the astronauts abandoned / left their attempt to launch the space shuttle.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.


3c – Finish the sentence

Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath:

1. Resentment and jealousy over jobs is a common source of conflict…

2. Many members of the public question the relevance…

3. Retraining courses for the unemployed may just be a way to exclude…

4. The letters L, E and C on the map correspond…

5. Some environmentalists have a very bleak vision…

6. One way in which some countries can produce very cheap goods is to exploit…

7. The demonstrators refused to disperse,…

8. Multi-national companies are often keen to seek…

9. The Earth rotates…

10. It is better to work at a constant rate and to maintain…

11. Nowadays, most people have a more favourable attitude…

12. If a family moves abroad, the children often adapt…

a. …to their new environment more quickly than their parents.

b. …towards women having top positions in the workplace.

c. …within society and can lead to violence.

d. …to London, Edinburgh and Cardiff.

e. …although the police were heavily armed and very aggressive.

f. …more people from the unemployment totals.

g. …child workers by paying them very low wages.

h. …this during the year rather than to try to learn everything the night before the examinations.

i. …on its axis once every 24 hours.

j. …of the monarchy to life in modern society.

k. …local companies in developing economies willing to act as partners.

l. …of the future, while others are much more optimistic



3d – Word substitution

From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:

accomplish (v) , adequate (adj) , area (n) , chemical (n) , conduct (n) , consume (v) , credible (adj) , dispose of (v) , exert (v) , manifest in (v) , occupy (v) , rely on (v)

1. Environmentalists are keen to persuade us to throw away rubbish and waste in more environmentally-friendly ways.

2. Poisonous substances released into the sea may be absorbed by fish and then find their way into the human food chain.

3. A growing number of scientists find it plausible that other life forms may exist elsewhere in the universe.

4. Some countries have such great economic problems that they are forced to depend on aid from richer countries in order to feed their inhabitants.

5. Before accepting an overseas student, a university will make sure that the student’s English is sufficient.

6. The North Americans use more energy and resources than any other nation.

7. Although Mozart lived for only 40 years, he achieved a great deal in his short life.

8. At examination time, go to the library early as all the places tend to be filled very quickly.

9. Because of its economic and military strength, the USA exercises considerable influence over world politics.

10. He suffers from a lack of self-confidence, as shown by his very poor examination results.

11. Prisoners are sometimes released from prison early if their behaviour has been good.

12. If global warming continues, many regions of the world will become drier while others may become wetter.


3e – Choose the best word

For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a, b or c:

1. Before giving a presentation, always ______________________ the focus on the projector so that everyone can read what is on the screen.
a. adjust
b. move
c. change

2. The changes companies make to their cars are often very ______________________ and may not change the basic structure of the cars at all.
a. microscopic
b. superficial
c. minute

3. Although most cars can travel much faster, the ______________________ speed limit in the UK is 70 mph (110 kph).
a. maximum
b. highest
c. biggest

4. In special ______________________, a person who is found guilty of murder may receive no punishment at all from the court.
a. places
b. times
c. circumstances

5. The results of the government inquiry ______________________ that there had been no deliberate attempt by the company to deceive investors.
a. displayed
b. revealed
c. explained

6. One important aspect of marketing is to create a positive ______________________ of a company or product.
a. image
b. picture
c. style

7. Today, people are probably more familiar with ______________________ on the television and radio rather than in the theatre.
a. drama
b. acting
c. play

8. Police could not understand why the arrested man had murdered his neighbour since he appeared to have no ______________________.
a. objective
b. motive
c. purpose

9. The first two weeks of the course are designed to ______________________ new students and to allow them to settle into university life.
a. orientate
b. instruct
c. introduce

10. The instructions from air traffic control were not fully ______________________, and as a result the pilot made an error and crashed.
a. total
b. explicit
c. complete

11. A large number of people became ill after receiving blood transfusions ______________________ with the AIDS virus.
a. polluted
b. poisoned
c. contaminated

12. Joining a newsgroup allows computer users to make ______________________ with other people who share a similar interest.
a. touch
b. approach
c. contact

13. If you have time, I would really ______________________ some help with this assignment.
a. appreciate
b. respect
c. value


3f – Make a collocation

Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:

  • global , common , computer , power and , previous , final , outspoken , dynamic , positive , physical , labour , classic
  • shortage , personality , exercise , prestige , example , critic , experience , decision , feature , aspects , network , economy

1. After the Second World War, there was a _________________ _________________ in Britain and so workers from other countries had to be recruited.

2. Some people found Mrs Thatcher’s style somewhat aggressive, while others preferred to regard her as having a forceful and _________________ _________________.

3. His doctor advised him to give up fatty foods and to take some form of _________________ _________________ such as golf.

4. In most countries, Mercedes-Benz cars are very famous because they are regarded as symbols of _________________ _________________.

5. The university refused to make a _________________ _________________ on his application until he had taken a language test.

6. Without doubt, Coca-Cola is probably the _________________ _________________ of a product that is known world-wide.

7. Employers are always keen to recruit staff with good qualifications and relevant _________________ _________________.

8. Those language learners who focus on the _________________ _________________ of living in a new culture rather than on the disadvantages tend to learn more quickly.

9. Because she was an _________________ _________________ of the government, she was kept under house arrest for a number of years.

10. Unfortunately, rising crime rates seem to be an increasingly _________________ _________________ of life in big cities today.

11. The Internet, as the name implies, is really a huge _________________ _________________, linking computers all over the world.

12. Tourism is now a very significant part of the _________________ _________________, earning millions of dollars.