Academic subjects:
archaeology also archeology
UNCOUNTABLE NOUN Archaeology is the study of the societies and peoples of the past by examining the remains of their buildings, tools, and other objects.
■ an archaeology professor at Florida State University

astronomy
UNCOUNTABLE NOUN Astronomy is the scientific study of the stars, planets, and other natural objects in space.
■ a 10-day astronomy mission

economics
UNCOUNTABLE NOUN Economics is the study of the way in which money, industry,
and trade are organized in a society.
■ He gained a first class Honours degree in economics.
■ having previously studied economics and fine art

geology
UNCOUNTABLE NOUN Geology is the study of the Earth’s structure, surface, and origins.
■ He was visiting professor of geology at the University of Jordan.

linguistics
UNCOUNTABLE NOUN Linguistics is the study of the way in which language works.
■ Modern linguistics emerged as a distinct field in the nineteenth century.

psychology
UNCOUNTABLE NOUN Psychology is the scientific study of the human mind and the reasons for people’s behaviour.
■ Professor of Psychology at Bedford College
■ research in educational psychology

sociology
UNCOUNTABLE NOUN Sociology is the study of society or of the way society is organized.
■ a sociology professor at the University of North Carolina
■ a treatise on the sociology of religion

Academic activities:

analyse (analyses, analysing, analysed)
VERB If you analyse something, you consider it carefully or use statistical methods in order to fully understand it. [US analyze]
■ McCarthy was asked to analyse the data from the first phase of trials of the vaccine.
■ [+ what] This book teaches you how to
analyse what is causing the stress in your life.

claim (claims, claiming, claimed)
VERB If you say that someone claims that something is true, you mean they say that it is true but you are not sure whether or not they are telling the truth.
■ [+ that] He claimed that it was all a conspiracy against him.
■ [+ to-inf] A man claiming to be a journalist threatened to reveal details about her private life.
■ He claims a 70 to 80 per cent success rate.

define (defines, defining, defined)
VERB If you define a word or expression, you explain its meaning, for example in a dictionary.
■ [+ as] Collins English Dictionary defines a workaholic as ‘a person obsessively addicted to work’.

evaluate (evaluates, evaluating, evaluated)
VERB If you evaluate something or someone, you consider them in order to make a judgment about them, for example about how good or bad they are.
■ They will first send in trained nurses to evaluate the needs of the individual situation.
■ The market situation is difficult to evaluate.
■ [+ how] we evaluate how well we do something

investigate (investigates, investigating, investigated)
VERB If you investigate something, you study or examine it carefully to find out the truth about it.
■ Research in Oxford is now investigating a possible link between endometriosis and the immune system.
■ [+ how] Police are still investigating how the accident happened.

Nouns associated with research:

evidence
UNCOUNTABLE NOUN Evidence is anything that you see, experience, read, or are told that causes you to believe that something is true or has really happened.
■ [+ of/for] a report on the scientific evidence for global warming
■ [+ that] There is a lot of evidence that stress is partly responsible for disease.
■ [+ to-inf] To date there is no evidence to support this theory.

hypothesis (hypotheses)
NOUN A hypothesis is an idea which is suggested as a possible explanation for a particular situation or condition, but which has not yet been proved to be correct.
[FORMAL] ■ Work will now begin to test the hypothesis in rats.
■ Different hypotheses have been put forward to explain why these foods are more likely to cause problems.

theory (theories)
NOUN A theory is a form al idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain something.
■ [+ of] Einstein formulated the Theory of Relativity in 1905.