4a – Fill in the gaps

From the following list, use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word:

administer (v) , analogy (n) , assemble (v) , distribute (v) , energy (n) , impress (v) , intervene (v) , perpendicular (adj) , reject (v) , speculate (v) , spontaneous (adj) , text (n)

1. She so _________________ the interviewers that they gave her the job.

2. At the beginning of the examination, question papers were _________________ to all of the candidates in the hall.

3. Artificial intelligence draws an _________________ between the digital computer and the human brain, but some researchers think that this comparison is too simplistic.

4. Studying a language can take up a great deal of time, money and _________________.

5. Following the earthquake, the house was unsafe because the walls were no longer _________________.

6. Although there is very little evidence, many scientists _________________ that life may exist on other planets.

7. The spell-check facility on a computer allows students to check the _________________ of their assignments for basic errors.

8. The police have a duty to _________________ the law fairly and give everyone the same treatment.

9. For some university courses, the majority of applications are _________________ because the competition for places is so great.

10. Usually, we try to reach a conclusion after careful thought, but sometimes we may make _________________ decisions instead.

11. A large number of people _________________ outside the Parliament to show support for their party.

12. Because hundreds of people were dying, the United Nations decided to _________________ and provide emergency food supplies.



4b – Choose the right word

In each of the sentences below, decide which word in bold is more suitable.

1. Although he was interested in many fields, Einstein is best known for his work in the sphere / globe of physics.

2. Psychology / Biology can help the police understand how criminals think.

3. Following the explosion at Chernobyl, scientists were keen to assess / investigate the cause of the accident.

4. The imaginary line between the North Pole and the South Pole is known as the Earth’s axis / axle.

5. At the end of the year, the bank praises / appraises all of its staff and gives a bonus to the best performers.

6. If you are taking notes in a lecture, use shapes / symbols such as “+” and “=” as opposed to the words ‘and’ and ‘equals.’

7. The principle of heredity / inheritance explains why children tend to look like their parents.

8. The two sides have been engaged for some hours now in a lengthy discourse / chat on the issue of weapons, with no conclusions as yet.

9. After he had moved to Australia, he started to acquire / obtain a marked Australian accent.

10. Although the work is far from finished, some approximate / tentative conclusions can already be drawn from the responses we have so far.

11. In a dangerous situation, most people panic and become very frightened, while others show no emotion / sympathy at all.



4c – Finish the sentence

Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath:

1. On the screen above me, you can see a diagram…

2. In mathematics, a statement is known as a theorem…

3. The student population is much more diverse…

4. Older university buildings may be wonderful in aesthetic…

5. The contract stipulated…

6. The Internet may soon not be capable…

7. The police usually contact parents about any incident…

8. Because of pollution in the atmosphere,…

9. The terrorists demanded that the government release…

10. One journalist asked the minister to justify…

11. The negotiations went on through the night, but the eventual…

12. Heavy rains persisted…

a. …terms, but are not always very practical.

b. …more UV radiation is reaching the Earth, resulting in more skin cancer.

c. …his decision to reduce spending on education.

d. …showing the different parts of the system.

e. …than in the past, with many more part-time and mature students.

f. …which involves young children.

g. …outcome was agreement on all the main points.

h. …for several days, causing heavy flooding.

i. …their colleagues from prison.

j. …of sending all the information users want.

k. …if we can prove it by using logic and reasoning.

l. …that all the goods had to be delivered within four weeks.


4d – Word substitution

From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:

allege (v) , alter (v) , cease (v) , elaborate (adj) , fragment (n) , philosophy (n) , litigation (n) , induce (v) , reservoir (n) , subside (v) , upsurge (n)

1. The prisoner claimed that he had been attacked by the police, but there was no evidence to prove this.

2. Because of the possible link between disease in cows and humans, many companies stopped trading in British beef and associated products.

3. Your research proposal doesn’t need to be too detailed: keep it simple and concentrate on the main points.

4. Global warming will change the way we live: everybody will experience some change.

5. Following an air accident, investigators examine every piece of the wreckage to determine the cause of the crash.

6. The most recent management thinking encourages managers to listen more carefully to the ideas of their employees.

7. During the last twenty-five years, there has been a significant increase in the number of overseas students in British universities.

8. When the interest in the company declined, the value of its shares began to fall.

9. The government’s refusal to accept the result of the election prompted thousands of people to come out on to the streets and protest.

10. As so many jobs require good skills, there is a pool of people who are unemployed because they do not have any skills.

11. A number of universities are worried about legal action in the law courts by students who are dissatisfied with their courses.


4e – Choose the best word

For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a, b or c.

1. The former West Germany tried to __________________ its business approach onto the former East Germany.
a. imprint
b. enforce
c. superimpose

2. In a nuclear power station, __________________ of uranium are split into smaller particles, releasing huge amounts of energy.
a. atoms
b. chunks
c. elements

3. Young army officers led the violent __________________ which brought down the democraticallyelected government.
a. revolt
b. policy
c. way

4. The recent rise in leukaemia and similar diseases has been __________________ radiation leakingfrom the nearby nuclear power station.
a. credited to
b. led to
c. attributed to

5. One of the reasons for the relatively high price of many drugs is the huge cost of __________________ and development.
a. experiments
b. research
c. trials

6. The Channel Tunnel between France and the United Kingdom was a huge engineering
a. project
b. development
c. attempt

7. We have two e-mail systems here: one for __________________ use, and another for contacting people outside the university.
a. inside
b. internal
c. indoors

8. The police interviewed three men but later __________________ them from their investigation as they were all innocent.
a. eliminated
b. eradicated
c. exterminated

9. A computer cannot blindly guess the answer to a question, since all its operations are based on
a. logic
b. thought
c. understanding

10. The __________________ of the American space programme in the 1960’s was to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade.
a. ambition
b. point
c. goal

11. If public transport is to succeed in serving the public, it is important to __________________ services such as trains and buses so that they work together and offer a more convenient service.
a. integrate
b. unite
c. combine

12. Approximately 30 of the world’s most industrialised countries __________________ the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
a. constitute
b. comprise
c. are composed of



4f – Make a collocation

Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:

  • atom , flatly , high , embodies , dense , dedicated , Western , military , mobile , judicial 
  • fog , proportion , phones , system , bombs , culture , contradicted , his life , service , the principle

1. An official spokesman _________________ _________________ allegations that the company had been responsible for the deaths of three employees, insisting that every precaution had been taken.

2. As more countries acquire the technology necessary to produce _________________ _________________, the probability that they will be used again increases.

3. A _________________ _________________ of people released from prison continue to commit offences.

4. In some countries, _________________ _________________ has been rejected in favour of a more traditional view of society.

5. One major criticism of the _________________ _________________ in Britain is that there are not enough female judges.

6. Nelson Mandela _________________ _________________ to achieving equality between black and white people in South Africa.

7. When there is heavy snow or _________________ _________________ , an airport may be closed down to prevent the possibility of an accident.

8. The policy of privatisation _________________ _________________ of a property-owning democracy.

9. Because of the growth in fax machines and _________________ _________________ , we will need more new telephone numbers.

10. In many European countries compulsory _________________ _________________ is the norm, whereas in Britain no one is required to join the armed forces.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.