5a – Fill in the gaps

From the following list, use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word:

aid (n) , biology (n) , edit (v) , enlighten (v) , homogeneous (adj) , overlap (v) , stress (n) , symptom (n) , trait (n) , trivial (adj) , version (n) , x-rays (n)

1. __________________ are not simply used to photograph broken bones but also to fight against cancers within the body.

2. One big advantage of a word processor is that it allows you to check and then _________________ your work easily.

3. The first witness accused the defendant of murder, but the second witness gave a very different __________________ of events.

4. These experiments may seem ____________________ but they are in fact extremely important.

5. Of all the countries in the world, Japan may well be the most ____________________ as the great majority of its people are from the same race.

6. Heart disease can be caused by a bad diet (especially too much fat), inadequate exercise and too much ____________________.

7. With the __________________ of new medical techniques, couples who were previously unable to have children may now be able to start a family.

8. Headaches may just be the result of tiredness but can be a ____________________ of a more serious problem.

9. Jealousy is one of the most unpleasant human ________________________.

10. She found physics easy because some of the course ____________________ with the maths she had studied at school.

11. ____________________ can be defined simply as the study of life.

12. Two students had great difficulty in solving the equation, but luckily their tutor was able to ____________________ them.



5b – Choose the right word

In each of the sentences below, decide which word in bold is more suitable.

1. During the process known as photosynthesis, plants soak up / absorb CO2 and release oxygen.

2. So many contrary / unlike opinions were expressed that no agreement was possible.

3. The United Nations representative managed to secure / acquire agreement between the two sides who had been fighting over an area of land rich in oil.

4. Although one of the prisoners refused to respond / answer to any questions, each of the others made a full confession.

5. Adjectives (big, green), verbs (come, go), conjunctions (and, but) and prepositions (to, in, for) are all categories / groups of words.

6. Divorce arouses such strong feelings that it is difficult to remain honest / objective and logical about the best way to tackle this problem.

7. The opening of a new car factory stimulated / aroused the local economy and improved employment possibilities.

8. When the government tried to implement / start new employment legislation, there was a general strike.

9. During times of war, governments usually stop / suppress any newspaper reports which contain bad news.

10. Examination candidates are not allowed to eat, drink, smoke or talk for the time / duration of the examination.

11. The UK Government can decide to suspend / expel an overseas student who does not have a visa and refuse permission for the student to return.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

5c – Finish the sentence

Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath:

1. The European Union has insisted that all new aircraft incorporate…

2. In today’s economy, full-time permanent jobs…

3. Most British students used to receive a grant…

4. The police officer denied…

5. At the end of a quotation, remember to put in parentheses…

6. Because the universe is so vast,…

7. The measurements taken by researchers must be accurate…

8. Religion has many aspects, one of which is to provide a code…

9. Although many elderly people retain…

10. At university, it is best to use a formal, impersonal style…

11. Some clothes can be made from synthetic…

12. Inside the hydrogen atom, there is one electron…

a. …otherwise the conclusions they come to will be useless.

b. …of conduct to show people how they should behave.

c. …that he had accepted money from any criminal group.

d. …moving around the proton at the centre.

e. …from the government to pay for costs such as rent, food and books.

f. …additional safety features.

g. …are disappearing to be replaced by part-time temporary employment.

h. …the author’s name, the date and the page number: (Brown 1996:76).

i. …clear memories of their childhood, they may completely forget recent events.

j. …in your writing, and to avoid contractions such as ‘isn’t’ and ‘doesn’t’.

k. …materials such as nylon as well as natural materials such as cotton.

l. …it is unlikely that man will be able travel to other galaxies

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.


5d – Word substitution

From the list below, choose one word which could be used to replace the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:

advocate (v) , compound (n) , contract (v) , dictate (v) , graph (n) , insist (v) , preliminary (adj) , retard (v) , subtle (adj) , tiny (adj) , transfer (v)

1. Those who support military service claim that it promotes discipline, while opponents argue that such service disrupts young people’s education.

2. Most metals shrink as they become cooler.

3. Although not all the votes have been counted, initial results suggest that the President has won the election.

4. In spite of a massive advertising campaign, only a very small proportion of consumers made a permanent change in their buying habits.

5. If you look at this second chart, you can see that unemployment has been in decline for the past six years.

6. Although the factory had to be closed, all the employees were relocated to another factory belonging to the same company.

7. Some organisations have a dress code which lays down what their employees should wear.

8. Although the two cases seemed to be identical, one lawyer showed that there were some slight differences between them.

9. One of the many effects of the hole in the ozone layer is that increased radiation will delay the growth of plants and lead to food shortages.

10. Water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen.

11. The prisoner said repeatedly that he was innocent until he was released.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.



5e – Choose the best word

For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a, b or c.

1. As trade union membership has declined, the number of ______________ and strikes has also decreased.
a. arguments
b. disagreements
c. disputes

2. The role of the middle manager is not to formulate new policies but to ______________ them.
a. manage
b. use
c. execute

3. Engineers worked throughout the night to ________________ electricity to homes whose supplies had been cut off by heavy snow.
a. reinstate
b. renew
c. restore

4. Many athletes take extra vitamins as a/an ________________ to their diet when they are preparing for competition.
a. reinforcement
b. supplement
c. extension

5. Police officers face many dangers, especially when they are __________________ by violent criminals carrying weapons.
a. confronted b. met c. encountered

6. The invention of printing allowed ideas to __________________ much more quickly than before.
a. scatter
b. diffuse
c. disseminate

7. In many cultures, it was traditionally believed that men were _________________ to women, but this attitude has been changing rapidly in recent years.
a. better
b. inferior
c. superior

8. In the early years, facilities for tourists were rather ___________________, but now they are highly developed.
a. crude
b. rudimentary
c. uncomplicated

9. Increasingly, post-graduate students are asked to become teaching assistants in order to ___________________ undergraduates.
a. instruct
b. drill
c. inform

10. Cigarette packets on sale are required to carry a _________________ clearly stating the dangers of smoking.
a. label
b. message
c. tag

11. A defence lawyer has a duty to try to establish the innocence of his/her ____________________.
a. patient
b. customer
c. client

12. You can buy goods on the Internet with a credit card, but there is a danger of ____________________ if someone else obtains the number.
a. corruption
b. fraud
c. embezzlement



5f – Make a collocation

Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:

  • force of , abstract , err on , at regular , imposed , within a , lines , crisis of , research , legitimate , perpetrated 
  • a ban , crimes , intersect , concern , gravity , institutes , thought , intervals , radius , confidence , the side of caution

1. Most academic journals are published _________________ _________________, perhaps every month or every quarter.

2. While it is probably true they are not capable of _________________ _________________, most animals appear to experience a range of emotions.

3. There is a tradition that a falling apple helped Newton develop his theory about the _________________ _________________.

4. In the 1970’s, the price of oil increased dramatically, causing an international economic _________________ _________________.

5. Most people accept that fighting against terrorism is a _________________ _________________ of any government.

6. Because of the danger of an explosion, everyone who was _________________ _________________ of 500 metres of the bomb was evacuated.

7. Before publishing the results of new research, it is better to _________________ _________________ and recheck the results.

8. On this graph, where the two _________________ _________________ we find the ideal balance.

9. Following the rise in violence, the government _________________ _________________ on the private ownership of guns.

10. Because of the work of _________________ _________________, there is increasing hope that effective treatments for AIDS will soon be available.

11. He _________________ _________________ which were so terrible that a massive manhunt was launched by the police to find him.