Nouns to describe dimensions:

angle (angles)
NOUN An angle is the difference in direction between two lines or surfaces. Angles are measured in degrees.
■ The boat is now teaning at a 30 degree angle.

UNCOUNTABLE NOUN The circumference of a circle, place, or round object is the distance around its edge.
■ a scientist
calculating the Earth’s circumference
■ The island is 3.5 km in circumference.

diameter (diameters)
NOUN The diameter of a round object is the length of a straight line that can be drawn across it, passing through the middle of it.
■ [+ of] a tube less than a fifth of the diameter of a human hair
■ a length of 22-mm diameter steel pipe

height (heights)
NOUN The height of a person or thing is their size or length from the bottom to the top.
■ Her weight is about normal for her height.
■ I am 5’6″ in height.
■ [+ of] The tree can grow to a height of 20ft.
■ He was a man of medium height.

length (lengths)
NOUN The length of something is the amount that it measures from one end to the other along the longest side.
■ It is about a metre in length.
■ [+ of] the length of the field
■ [+ of] The plane had a wing span of 34ft and a length of 22ft.

radius (radii)
NOUN The radius around a particular point is the distance from it in any direction.
■ [+ around] Nigel has searched for work in a ten-mile radius around his home.
■ [+ of] within a fifty-mile radius of the town
■ Fragments of twisted metal were scattered across a wide radius.

volume (volumes)
NOUN The volume of something is the
amount of it that there is.
■ [+ of] Senior officials will be discussing how the volume of sales might be reduced.
■ [+ of] the sheer volume of traffic and accidents

width (widths)
NOUN The width of something is the distance it measures from one side or edge to the other.
■ [+ of] Measure the full width of the window.
■ The road was reduced to 18ft in width by adding parking bays.
■ Saddles are made in a wide range of different widths.


adjust (adjusts, adjusting, adjusted)
VERB When you adjust to a new situation, you get used to it by changing your behaviour or your ideas.
■ [+ to] We are preparing our fighters to adjust themselves to civil society.
■ [+ to] I felt I had adjusted to the idea of being a mother very well.

convey (conveys, conveying, conveyed)
VERB To convey information or feelings means to cause them to be known or understood by someone.
■ Semiological
analysis sees a sign as any cultural symbol which conveys a meaning.
■ In every one of her pictures she conveys a sense of immediacy.
■ He also conveyed his views and the views of the bureaucracy.

launch (launches, launching, launched)
VERB If a company launches a new product, it makes it available to the public.
■ Crabtree & Evelyn has just launched a new jam, Worcesterberry Preserve.
■ Marks & Spencer recently hired model Linda Evangelista to launch its new range.

reinforce (reinforces, reinforcing, reinforced)
VERB If something reinforces a feeling, situation, or process, it makes it stronger or more intense.
■ A stronger European Parliament would, they fear, only reinforce the power of the larger countries.
■ This sense of privilege tends to be reinforced by the outside world.

• secure (secures, securing, secured)
VERB If you secure something that you want or need, you obtain it, often after a lot of effort. [FORMAL]
■ Federal leaders continued their efforts to secure a ceasefire.
■ Graham’s achievements helped secure him the job.

suspend (suspends, suspending, suspended)
VERB If you suspend something, you delay it or stop it from happening for a while or until a decision is made about it.
■ The union suspended strike action this week.
■ [+ until] A U.N. official said aid programs will be suspended until there’s adequate protection
for relief convoys.

Track 06

The pinhole camera is a very simple device. It consists of a cylinder with a radius of approximately 4 cm and a height of 12 cm. There is a small hole 1 mm in diameter positioned halfway up the wall of the cylinder. A sheet of photographic paper 18 cm in width curves round the inside of the cylinder leaving a gap of about 1 cm just behind the pinhole. The camera is very simple to use, but it takes a long time to produce a picture. If you fix the camera outside and expose it to the light, after a few minutes, you will find that an image has appeared on the
photographic paper.

Track 07

1 You may need to adjust the volume of the microphone so that we can hear you at the back of the room.

2 If we launch the game in January, we’re unlikely to maximize sales.

3 These types of comments reinforce the notion that the unemployed don’t want to work.

4 After lengthy negotiations, the contractor was able to secure a good deal.

5 The organization has suspended operations until more money becomes available.


Track 8

Lisa: OK, as I understand it, we’ve got to build a device that will allow us to convey a ping-pong ball from one table to another a metre away. Bill, what have we got?

Bill: We’re only allowed to use: six sheets of paper, a box of paper clips, some
thread, four drinking straws, and two elastic bands.

Lisa: I’m not sure where to start. Anybody got any ideas?

Omar: Maybe we could use the elastic bands to launch the ball across the gap…

Bill: That’s not a bad idea, Omar, but I think that would be rather difficult to do.
Hmmm.J think we should create a sort of bridge with the sheets of paper. We
could suspend it between the tables. How would that work?

Bill: We could cut the paper into strips of about 10 cm wide…

Lisa: I get it!…and attach them end-to-end with paper clips. But how would we
secure the bridge to the table?

Omar: We could use thread for that – I’m sure we could work something out. But what I’m not sure about is how we can keep the ball from falling off the bridge.

Lisa: Well, if we fold the sides of the paper so that it forms a cylinder or tube that
would keep the ball from rolling onto the floor. This would also help keep the
bridge rigid enough to span the distance between the tables. What do you think

Bill: I think that’s a brilliant idea. If necessary we could use the drinking straws to further reinforce the structure.

Omar: Do you think 10 cm strips would be wide enough? What’s the diameter of a ping-pong ball?

Lisa: That’s a good question Omar. I don’t know maybe two and a half centimetres -OK what about 15 cm?