6a – Fill in the gaps

From the following list, use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word:

academic (adj) , arouse (v) , benefit (n) , compute (v) , contend (v) , degenerate (v) , hierarchy (n) , instinct (n) , interlocking (adj) , metabolism (n) , radical (adj) , strata (n)

1. Students at university are encouraged to play sports or join clubs in addition to following their ________________ studies.

2. Animals with a very fast ___________________ have to eat very frequently and do not live very long.

3. ___________________ of rock likely to contain oil have recently been located under the ice-sheet in Antarctica.

4. The fact that the car was being driven very badly ___________________ the policeman’s suspicions, and so he made the driver stop.

5. All the equipment is made up of __________________ pieces which can be easily assembled in weightless conditions.

6. An organisational chart shows the company __________________ , from the managers at the top down to the employees at the bottom.

7. During the 1930’s, President Roosevelt introduced _______________ new policies to solve the American unemployment problem.

8. We can make machines which can _________________ huge numbers of mathematical problems, but it is still too early to claim that machines can actually think for themselves.

9. Some people emphasise the _________________ of new technology, while others stress the disadvantages.

10. The argument became so heated that it soon _______________________ into accusations of dishonesty and corruption.

11. By _______________________, a young baby will start to cry if it is hungry, cold, or in pain.

12. Some religious groups _______________________ that Darwin’s theory of evolution is completely.



6b – Choose the right word

In each of the sentences below, decide which word is more suitable:

1. In India, Mahatma Gandhi refused all food and indeed nearly died in his protest / complaint against British control of his country.

2. If you are taking medicine, you should avoid alcohol as the two may interact / cooperate and make you ill.

3. Medium- / Middle-sized companies are often more flexible than larger organisations.

4. Government safety inspectors found abnormal / unlikely levels of radiation in the area around the nuclear power station.

5. More than 30,000 people participated / contributed in the experiment.

6. Most universities oblige / force overseas students to take an English language test before they start their course.

7. Companies which cannot adapt to changing situations very often go into decline / decrease.

8. The tone / style of the meeting was rather serious and formal.

9. Many police officers argue that ex-prisoners commit / perform as much crime after they come out of prison as before they went in.

10. Studying a new subject means having to learn a lot of new vocabulary / terminology, and these special words can make progress very slow.

11. He is such a powerful boxer that all his opponents are in awe / fright of him.

12. The appeal / claim by protesters for more money to be invested in education was rejected by the Government.


6c – Finish the sentence

Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath:

1. The decision to expand the airport has caused a great deal of controversy,…

2. The murder was a very strange case but the most striking aspect…

3. All new cars on the market today have to conform…

4. The Pope in Rome is – according to the doctrine…

5. Cars are not allowed to enter many civic…

6. The police accompanied…

7. The film was made on a very low budget, so all the minor…

8. Mercury is the smallest planet…

9. Whatever type of job you may be contemplating,…

10. At the end of the process, any parts which are not of uniform…

11. When selecting new employees, it is important to ignore subjective…

12. Buildings in places such as California have to be reinforced…

13. In the United Kingdom, Queen Victoria reigned…

a. …the witness to the court to ensure that he would be safe.

b. …was the fact that the murderers were both under 10 years old.

c. …centres today, because of pollution and congestion problems.

d. …to the same safety and pollution regulations.

e. …but construction has already started and should be completed soon.

f. …of the Catholic Church – the representative of God here on Earth.

g. …the university careers service can give you advice.

h. …roles were played by people from the local area.

i. …in our solar system.

j. …for most of the previous century, before her son became king in 1901.

k. …shape and size are rejected and sent back for recycling.

l. …impressions and to base decisions on facts instead.

m. …so that they will not collapse in the event of an earthquake.


6d – Word substitution

From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:

activist (n) , assist (v) , clarify (v) , converse (v) , extract (v) , incline (v) , propagate (v) , propensity (n) , sustain (v) , urban (adj)

1. The lecturer tried to explain her point more clearly by using another example more familiar to her students.

2. It is impossible to grow crops without an adequate supply of water.

3. By the age of three, most children are able to talk with an adult in a limited fashion.

4. Because of unhappy childhood experiences, he is disposed to believe that most people are basically very selfish.

5. During examinations, students are not allowed to talk to or help other students in any way.

6. Students should not read every page of a book but instead identify and then take out only those ideas which are relevant.

7. Some students will stay up all night to finish their work, but it is impossible to maintain this for very long and so it is not recommended.

8. One of the main causes of the increase in inner-city lawlessness is the number of young people dependent on drugs.

9. Heavy smokers have a tendency to develop lung cancer and other serious illnesses.

10. In recent environmental demonstrations, campaigners have protested against the building of new roads.


Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.


6e – Choose the best word

For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a, b or c:

1. Wearing a seatbelt when travelling in a car is now a ______________________ requirement in many countries, and people who do not so may be punished in the courts.
a. legal
b. compulsory
c. binding

2. Because the strikers still refused to return to work, the employers agreed reluctantly to _____________________ their pay offer to the workers.
a. rewrite
b. revise
c. reproduce

3. The age at which a child becomes ______________________ in the United Kingdom is 18.
a. a person
b. an adult
c. an individual

4. Many scientists believe that most dinosaurs were killed as a result of a huge meteor which ______________________ with the Earth 65 million years ago.
a. crashed
b. hit
c. collided

5. The journalist asked the Prime Minister repeatedly about the scandal but he refused to ______________________ on it.
a. comment
b. mention
c. discuss

6. Despite a great deal of evidence to the contrary, tobacco companies ______________________ the public for years that smoking was not a direct cause of cancer.
a. promised
b. assured
c. persuaded

7. While South Korea has ______________________ over the last fifty years, North Korea is still relatively underdeveloped.
a. succeeded
b. prospered
c. achieved

8. In most companies, employees receive extra ______________________ if they do extra work.
a. income
b. revenue
c. salary

9. Following unification, the German government decided to move the capital from Bonn and ______________________ it once more in Berlin.
a. position
b. locate
c. place

10. There are many parts of the world which are ______________________ enough to produce food but do not have enough water.
a. productive
b. fertile
c. agricultural

11. Most universities have trained counsellors who can reassure and ______________________ students who have academic or personal problems.
a. console
b. sympathise
c. cheer

12. The ______________________ of world trade increased enormously during the twentieth century.
a. size
b. volume
c. scope

13. To improve teamworking, students are often asked to ______________________ to produce a group report or presentation together.
a. assist
b. unite
c. co-operate



6f – Make a collocation

Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one
pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:

  • keep , niche , southern , identical , brief , economic , attain , under , go off at , virtual , endless
  • hemisphere , your nerve , interlude , their goals , cycle , twins , reality , sanctions , market , a tangent , the microscope

1. When you look at your exam paper, try to _________________ _________________ and don’t panic; concentrate on what you can do!

2. In order to increase pressure on the government, _________________ _________________ were imposed preventing the sale of oil.

3. Sometimes, university life just seems to be an _________________ _________________ of assignment after assignment.

4. In spite of equal opportunities policies, women are still not able to _________________ _________________ as easily as men in terms of reaching the top positions.

5. Some lecturers are difficult to follow because they _________________ _________________ and talk about something completely different.

6. Most _________________ _________________ not only look alike but also behave and even dress similarly.

7. _________________ _________________ is now so advanced that pilots train with it.

8. Some insects are so small that they can only really be seen properly _________________ _________________.

9. The countries in the _________________ _________________ are in general poorer than those in the northern.

10. After two months of non-stop fighting there was a _________________ _________________ of peace on Christmas Day before the fighting started again.

11. While the Volkswagen car was designed to appeal to the masses, the Rolls Royce has only ever been aimed at a _________________ _________________.