7a – Fill in the gaps

From the following list, use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word

adolescent (n) , affiliate (v) , aristocracy (n) , cell (n) , collapse (v) , commodity (n) , democracy (n) , dissolve (v) , friction (n) , invoke (v) , muscle (n) , repudiate (v) , saint (n)

1. _____________________ are the tiny, basic building blocks from which all living creatures are made up.

2. In many countries, there has been a worrying increase in the number of _____________________ taking drugs.

3. Without any warning, the building ___________________ killing more than 300 people inside.

4. In times of unemployment, ___________________ can arise between people who have jobs and those who do not.

5. ___________________ markets allow traders to buy and sell raw materials such as cotton, steel and sugar.

6. In order to become more powerful, trade unions usually ___________________ to a national union organisation.

7. Individuals who have become very rich through business usually also have a lot of political ___________________ and can therefore influence political decisions.

8. Sugar and salt ___________________ easily in water.

9. At the public enquiry, the Managing Director ___________________ all suggestions that the company had tried to avoid responsibility for the accident.

10. He was more than a national hero; in fact, most people looked up to him almost as a ____________________.

11. As a result of the revolution of 1917, the royal family and the ___________________ in Russia were overthrown and a communist government was installed.

12. Many political scientists argue that it is impossible to have a truly modern economy without ___________________ and a more open society.

13. In the USA, citizens can ______________________ the right to silence if they do not want to answer a question in court.


7b – Choose the right word

In each of the sentences below, decide which word in bold more suitable

1. Although unemployment was falling, the economy remained depressed / distressed because consumers still felt insecure about their jobs.

2. Computer equipment can become obsolete / antique very quickly because new technology emerges so fast.

3. In swimming pools, there is a slight odour / fragrance because of the chlorine in the water.

4. Some religious groups are strongly opposed to modern science, and refute / contradict even wellestablished theories such as evolution.

5. When designers choose material for making new clothes, they are particularly interested in the colour and the touch / texture of the material.

6. Increasingly, it seems that politicians who are dogmatic / pragmatic rather than rigid in their views tend to be more successful.

7. There are so many aircraft using Heathrow Airport these days that the noise is almost incessant / eternal.

8. Recent tests show that girls are getting higher scores / results than boys in most school subjects.

9. The creditors / debtors of a company are those individuals or organisations to whom that company owes money.

10. The defendant is allowed to discuss / confer with his/her lawyer before and during the trial.

11. Before the election, all the main political parties tried to explain their main policy / line to the voters through television broadcasts and newspaper advertisements.

12. Some species of birds migrate / commute from North Africa to Britain.

13. If the pattern / configuration of the control panel in an aircraft makes it difficult for the pilot to read the instruments, the chance of an accident will increase.

7c – Finish the sentence

Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath:

1. One branch of mathematics is geometry,…

2. Electrical equipment is usually supplied with a fuse,…

3. Muslims have a system of divine…

4. In 1991, President Saddam Hussein of Iraq invaded…

5. The new management team managed to revive…

6. When we talk about sociology,…

7. People in Japan enjoy a great deal of affluence…

8. In this lecture, I just want to give you a brief sketch…

9. Fifty years after the Second World War, a state of tension prevailed…

10. Like the United States Congress, the UK Parliament…

11. Early computers were very cumbersome…

12. The Government has reduced the number of ships in the navy…

a. …due to the economic growth of the last 30 years.

b. …which is concerned for example with lines and the shapes and angles they make.

c. …we are interested in the study of society and how people behave within it.

d. …but today they are much smaller.

e. …law based on the Koran.

f. …the neighbouring country of Kuwait.

g. …which will blow if a fault develops.

h. …and concentrated resources on the airforce instead.

i. …between the communist and capitalist worlds, called the Cold War.

j. …rather than speak in great detail about this new topic.

k. …is responsible for making laws.

l. …the company, which many had thought was beyond hope.

7d – Word substitution


From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:

alcohol (n) , competence (n) , conserve (v) , corporate (adj) , defer (v) , domestic (adj) , fraction (n) , horror (n) , incentive (n) , negotiate (v) , peasant (n) , prudence (n) , rhythm (n)

1. In many types of music, some kind of drum is used to provide the beat.

2. Some products are exported and may not be available at all in the home market.

3. There is growing pressure on governments to protect forests and wild animals.

4. If you wish to travel or work before studying, it is possible to postpone your entry to university by one year.

5. Companies often give employees inducements such as bonuses and pay rises to encourage them to work harder.

6. It is now common organisational policy for a company to have a mission statement explaining the aim of the organisation.

7. Only a small proportion of the competitors in the Olympic Games actually win a medal.

8. Agoraphobia can be defined as a dread of large, open spaces, its opposite being claustrophobia.

9. During the 1930’s, the sale of strong drink was illegal in the USA, and yet consumption of drink actually increased.

10. I am impressed by her business sense, and I thought that her decision not to expand the company showed a great deal of wisdom.

11. Rather than use force, the authorities tried to have discussions with the terrorists to secure the release of the hostages.

12. Increasingly, employers are keen to recruit people who have at least a basic ability in computing.

13. The 1949 revolution in China was successful because the agricultural workers and farmers gave their support to the communists.

7e – Choose the best word

For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a,b or c:

1. In any large company, the ________________________ Department is responsible for managing money within that organisation.
a. Finance
b. Monetary
c. Economic

2. Some political parties want to ________________________ the process by which we vote in general elections so as to make it more representative.
a. rewrite
b. redraw
c. reform

3. In the next century, the ________________________ of Asia will become the most significant sector of the world economic market.
a. region
b. continent
c. area

4. Mad cow disease was probably caused by allowing cows to eat nerve _____________________ from sheep and other cows.
a. tissue
b. flesh
c. matter

5. In the US today, more and more children live with one parent, and yet the ___________________ of the two-parent family still exists.
a. icon
b. stereotype
c. symbol

6. The study of ___________________ has been helped considerably by the Hubble telescope, the only telescope up in space.
a. astronomy
b. astrology
c. astronomer

7. In the Second World War, Switzerland declared that it would remain _______________________ and not take part in any of the fighting.
a. neutral
b. disinterested
c. impartial

8. The roots of a plant absorb water and ______________________ from the soil in which it grows.
a. food
b. nutrition
c. nutrients

9. Because of modern communications, it is increasingly common for people to _______________________ business without actually meeting.
a. perform
b. transact
c. make

10. According to the _______________________, the building should be ready for use by the end of the year.
a. timing
b. schedule
c. time

11. Many food products carry a ‘sell by’ date since they ________________________ over time and become unusable.
a. degrade
b. degenerate
c. corrupt

12. A simple everyday example of the _______________________ is the standard postcard.
a. triangle
b. square
c. rectangle

7f – Make a collocation

Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one
pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:

  • sibling , pleaded , political , thermal , salt , campaign , code , precipitated , colloquial , contingent , intermediate , US
  • not guilty , stages , of ethics , a crisis , Congress , spectrum , energy , rivalry , upon , crystals , of terror , language

1. The shortage of oil in the 1970’s _________________ _________________ in the world economy.

2. In areas with active volcanoes, the _________________ _________________ from underground hot water supplies can be used to produce electricity.

3. The water evaporated, leaving behind only _________________ _________________.

4. Although he _________________ _________________, the court sentenced him to three years in prison.

5. Doctors have a _________________ _________________ which requires them to act in the best interest of their patients.

6. _________________ _________________ refers to the competition which often exists between the children in a family for the attention and love of their parents.

7. Although there has been some success, the discussions are still only in the _________________ _________________.

8. The results of the vote showed agreement across the _________________ _________________, both on the extreme left and extreme right.

9. One extreme political group started a _________________ _________________, including hijacking , kidnapping and bombing.

10. When speaking, we tend to use _________________ _________________, but in academic writing we need to be much more formal.

11. The decision by Japanese companies to invest in the UK was _________________ _________________ Britain being part of the European Union.

12. The _________________ _________________ is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.