8a – Fill in the gaps

From the following list, use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word:

aggregate (adj) , fraternal (adj) , lens (n) , liable (adj) , nuclear (adj) , oxygen (n) , pendulum (n) , postulate (v), reproduce (v) , subordinate (adj) , supreme (adj)

1. By putting two _____________________ together, it is possible to make a simple telescope.

2. If students do not attend lectures, they are _____________________ to fail their examinations.

3. The _____________________ value of all the companies in the group was in excess of $250 million.

4. Periods of high economic growth tend to be followed by low growth, followed by more high growth again, like a _____________________.

5. The _____________________ Court in the United States is the highest and most important court in the country.

6. _____________________ energy provides approximately 80% of the electricity used in France, more than in any other country.

7. In any strike action by a trade union, ___________________ support from workers in other unions can be very important for it to succeed.

8. In this company, the supervisors are _____________________ to the inspectors, who in turn report to the Production Manager.

9. About 20% of the atmosphere is made up of _____________________, which is vital for life on Earth.

10. By law in the UK, you are allowed to _____________________ up to 10% of a book for your own personal study.

11. Karl Marx _____________________ that the structure of a society is determined by the economic structure of that society.


8b – Choose the right word

In each of the sentences below, decide which word in bold is more suitable:

1. In many cases, countries which may have been enemies in the past are often allies / friends today.

2. If a student does not follow / adhere to the regulations concerning examinations, he/she may fail.

3. In his book The Plague, Camus uses the disease mentioned in the title as a metaphor / simile to represent fascism and other extreme political ideas.

4. Some students complained because the extra lecture coincided / synchronised with one of their religious festivals.

5. The former President’s personality was so strong that her influence invaded / pervaded every aspect of political life.

6. Some students are reluctant / unhappy to ask questions because they are shy.

7. The contents / index at the back of a book allows the reader to find specific information.

8. In some parts of the world, children have to work very long hours, to the detriment / expense of their education and even their health.

9. The idea that HIV and AIDS only affect homosexuals is a complete error / fallacy.

10. The number of people living on our planet is on an upward trend / pattern and is expected to top 10 billion in the years to come.

11. While our reserves of oil and coal are fixed / finite, energy sources such as the wind or the sun will in effect never end.

8c – Finish the sentence

Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath:

1. It is very important that a child’s linguistic…

2. Teachers have noticed an increase in aggression,

3. The US Navy has the largest fleet…

4. Medical researchers managed to correlate…

5. University courses used to be very rigid…

6. From a very early age, children develop a spatial…

7. During the Korean War, communist countries aligned…

8. Some countries have a president, while others have a monarch,…

9. The European Union has reduced most of the bureaucracy…

10. Because of radio telescopes, we can now detect…

11. It is vital to make sure that the structure of a bridge will not oscillate…

a. …awareness allowing them to understand where things are around them.

b. …which may be caused by the food which children are eating.

c. …themselves with the North, with capitalist countries aiding the South.

d. …either a king or a queen.

e. …of ships in the world.

f. …abilities develop fully so that it can communicate and learn.

g. …up and down or from side to side, as this would cause it to collapse.

h. …distant stars which are invisible from Earth.

i. …and offered students no real choice or flexibility.

j. …associated with customs, thereby simplifying trade regulations.

k. …asbestos to lung cancer and other respiratory diseases many years ago.

8d – Word substitution

From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:

allude (v) , cater (v) , discern (v) , drug (n) , evolve (v) , launch (v) , proclaim (v) , rebel (n) , territory (n) , testify (v) , utilise (v)

1. In the twentieth century, Britain developed gradually from an industrial economy into a service economy.

2. The independence of the United States of America was announced in 1776.

3. Many companies in the developed world are trying to provide for older customers as the proportion of young people decreases.

4. The witness was so nervous that he refused to give evidence when the case came to court.

5. There is a very real danger that medicines currently used to treat infection will become completely ineffective if they are used too often and indiscriminately.

6. One of the most important skills to learn as a student is how to make use of your time effectively.

7. Despite the efforts of the doctors, it was not possible to notice any real improvement in the condition of the patient.

8. Most animals will attack other animals which try to enter their space.

9. In the course of a trial, lawyers are forbidden to mention or even refer to any previous criminal activity the accused may have been responsible for in the past.

10. The government has decided to initiate an investigation into the increase in deaths from drugs.

11. Revolutionaries overpowered the troops holding the radio station so that they could announce the change of government to the people.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible

8e – Choose the best word

For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from the following list:

1. Some plants _____________________ a sweet, sticky liquid to attract insects.
a. exude
b. leak
c. drip

2. To cut down on costs, the university _____________________ each student a limit of 500 pages of computer printing.
a. allots
b. gives
c. allocates

3. If children are _____________________ of love and security they may have problems in later life.
a. stripped
b. deprived
c. denied

4. The decision of the university to close the swimming pool at weekends _____________________ an angry reaction among students.
a. created
b. provoked
c. stimulated

5. Students on the new technology course became very _____________________ at the lack of suitable books in the library.
a. despondent
b. frustrated
c. sad

6. In the seventeenth century, William Harvey showed that blood _____________________ around the body on a continuous basis.
a. flows
b. circulates
c. pours

7. The G8 is a _____________________ of the world’s eight richest countries.
a. division
b. club
c. league

8. According to witnesses, some UFO’s can appear and disappear again as if by _____________________.
a. trickery
b. magic
c. miracle

9. Many political parties support the introduction of a common _____________________, accepted all over Europe.
a. money
b. finance
c. currency

10. The decision of the House of Commons surprised no one, as the politicians simply voted along _____________________ lines: the left-wing all supported the Prime Minister, and the right-wing all
opposed him.
a. partisan
b. factional
c. biased

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

8f – Make a collocation

Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one
pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:

  • solar , Peace , invest , imperial , sex and , give , dissipates , legislate , utter , on the premise
  • against , violence , power , energy , control , that , money , their consent , Treaty , waste of time

1. There is very little evidence to suggest that _________________ _________________ as portrayed on television and in film actually cause antisocial behaviour.

2. Many students make the mistake of reading without considering first why they are reading, which just _________________ _________________ for no good reason.

3. The _________________ _________________ signed at Versailles marked the end of the First World War.

4. One obvious source of energy is _________________ _________________, since the sun produces so much heat.

5. It is almost impossible to _________________ _________________ people who use the Internet for criminal purposes.

6. Most of the students complained that the lectures were an _________________ _________________ because it was impossible to understand the lecturer.

7. During the nineteenth century, perhaps a quarter of the world’s population was under British _________________ _________________.

8. Some years ago, seat-belt legislation was introduced, _________________ _________________ this would reduce the number of serious injuries.

9. One common complaint is that companies do not _________________ _________________ in new developments for the long-term future.

10. In some countries, if both pairs of parents _________________ _________________, young people can get married below the age of 18.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.