Track 07
Lecturer: OK, so to finish I want to look at the resources available for researching UK census information for
the essay you’ll be writing at the end of this module. There are many resources for the study of the
civilian population and family history out there ranging from public to academic to commercial. Some
are available for the public to access free of charge, whilst others are only available by payment of
fees, or restricted to academics and subject to registration. Some are more appropriate to family or
genealogical investigation, others to historical population research.
So if we start at the beginning of the list on your handout, you’ll see firstly there is the Family
Records Centre based in central London. The centre and their website are available to anyone in the
country who has an interest in researching demographic data. Their work might be useful to give you
an overview of the general sorts of data and services available. Unfortunately, you do have to pay a
registration charge of £20 for a year’s access to their material.
The next resource on the list is Genes Reunited, which is mainly for people who want to find out
more about their ancestors. There are some good interactive tools on this website, especially the
one which shows you how to manipulate the National Census Association’s statistical data. Although
Genes Reunited is very useful, it is used by a range of businesses and therefore accessing the site will
cost you.
Now, the third item on the handout is The National Census Association, which contains the
most up-to-date data as it’s compiled from official government census data every ten years. Both
companies and individuals are able to access all their resources without payment, so this may be a
good place to start your research.
Finally, I ’d just like to draw your attention to two journals at the bottom of the handout. The first
one, Journal of Historical Migration , is not actually a journal but a collection of articles on a website.
Anyway, you might like to take a look at it because it has several articles on the importance of
recording census data from a historical research perspective. This site is available to the general
public so you don’t have to pay or register. The other one, the Journal of Social Demography, is only
available using your university online journals login details as it can only be accessed by those
studying or researching in higher education. Right. Well, that should be enough reading for you.

Track 08
Lecturer: Today I’d like to continue from last week’s lecture by looking at what helps people successfully integrate
into a new culture. Whereas the reasons for migration are nowadays fairly easy to identify and largely
related to employment opportunities or political instability, the factors behind being able to adapt to
the new culture and create a new life are considerably more complex. Let’s start with an overview of
the issues as shown on this diagram. Starting on the left of the diagram there are two lists of factors:
internal and external. It’s important to notice that the internal factors, in other words those based on an
individual’s personality, are divided into positive factors – trusting others and acknowledging that people
are different, and negative – being afraid and being suspicious of people. You might think that the list of
negative factors would include discrimination, but it doesn’t because discrimination comes under the
larger category of fear. Now, what you should also notice is that the external factors are not labelled in
this way. It’s much more difficult to know how to measure the affects of external factors and whether
they actually are external or not. The influence of family relationships, climate, beliefs and values,
and the ability to communicate in the language of the new culture have wide ranging effects which are
difficult to measure and can distort any research.
Now focus on the centre of the diagram, and you’ll see this phrase: ‘Coping strategies’. This is
important because studies have shown that people who integrate well into a new culture, and that is
any culture by the way, are those who have eradicated any negativity, and made positive choices, and
adopted coping strategies such as observing people, and taking time to listen and ask questions in order
to diminish the effects of culture shock. What we have observed is that people who demonstrate positive
coping strategies such as observing, listening, and questioning end up by understanding the host culture
better and integrating quicker and more successfully. However, those who choose to be critical of the
differences, and therefore react negatively to the host culture, are likely to have increased feelings of
alienation. This alienation can tail off and become the beginning of acceptance if a person has some
positive experiences, but it usually deteriorates quickly into isolation.
Track 09
Lecturer: Many people have immigrated to Britain and become citizens over the last 200 years, and in today’s
lecture I’d like to look at the various laws or acts of parliament introduced to deal with those people
who came to live in Britain. In 1793 there was the Aliens Act, which the British government introduced
to control the number of refugees fleeing to Britain to escape the Revolution in France. Compared
to today, when refugees have to complete a long and complicated application process before arrival,
in 1793 all that was required by the authorities was that individuals had to register at the port where
they arrived. The collection of personal information started in 1844 with the Naturalisation Act, which
was updated in 1870. The main difference in the 1870 Act was that applicants who wanted to stay in
Britain had to have served the Crown or to have lived in the country for at least five years before being
considered. Both these acts allowed the government to control the number of people coming into the
country. These changes were fairly insignificant regarding people’s freedoms and the amount of state
intervention involved. However, in the twentieth century this began to change. The Alien Registration Act
was introduced in 1914 and when the First World War broke out, all aliens over the age of sixteen had to
register at local police stations, be of ‘good character’ and demonstrate a working knowledge of English.
The reason for this act was to create a feeling of patriotism among migrant communities and also to
stop spies from Europe infiltrating the country.
And after the Second World War, the meaning of British nationality was re-defined again, this time
to encourage residents from British colonies to come to Britain to help rebuild the country. This was
the British Nationality Act of 1948. The condition was that potential migrants had to demonstrate that
they wanted to work and were fit and healthy. Finally, there was the Commonwealth Immigration
Act of 1962. Legislation was passed to restrict the number of Commonwealth immigrants to Britain.
Although many people still wanted to come to Britain to obtain good jobs, the Act now meant
applicants had to get work permits, which were given mostly to skilled immigrants, such as doctors.
In the next session I want to look at more contemporary acts, for instance …
Track 10
Lecturer: This morning I’d like to focus on New York as a model for understanding immigration patterns
in relation to national rather than international change. Firstly, it is important to understand that
migration patterns are primarily affected by the rules of immigration which determine the conditions
of entry. After that, internal changes can affect patterns considerably. To highlight my first point let’s
study this diagram of Ellis Island and the process of admitting immigrants in the late nineteenth and
early twentieth centuries. Upon arrival at Ellis Island, people underwent a series of examinations
and questions before being allowed to enter the US. First of all, there was a medical inspection to
ensure the immigrants were not bringing in any contagious diseases. Anyone who did not pass the
medical examination was refused entry to New York and sent home on the next available ship. If the
examination was passed, immigrants were required to take a further examination; this time a legal
examination to establish whether they had any criminal convictions. After this, immigrants were able
to change currency and purchase tickets for onward rail travel from New York. Having completed
this simple process, immigrants were told to wait – this wait could be as long as five hours – before
boarding a ferry to take them to New York City. This simple system allowed millions of immigrants
to enter the US and is largely responsible for the ethnic make-up of the city today. Even though the
immigrants themselves may have had a variety of reasons for deciding to migrate, it was only possible
because of US national immigration laws.
Moving on to the second point – how changes within a country can have as much or more of an
effect than those outside the country. Various parts of New York have changed radically in their ethnic
make-up over the last 200 years: communities became wealthier, governments introduced new laws,
and employment opportunities came and went. These factors affect where people choose to live
or force them to move to somewhere different. For example, most people think that the population
has changed in Manhattan due to the rise of its importance as a financial trade centre, which is true
to some extent. But like the Ellis Island example, a change in politics, namely a change of mayor,
allowed the city to boom as a financial centre, and this resulted in different types of people moving
to the area. Brooklyn is an interesting example, too and we’ll be looking at it as our case study later
in the lecture. Whereas it used to be a predominantly working class area of the city and therefore
attracted unskilled migrant workers, nowadays its fame as a centre for up-and-coming artists
and musicians means it has attracted a new and much more diverse population of middle class
residents. Finally, Queens has shown a dramatic change in its population over the last fifty years due
to the airports there. This means that the number of airline staff living in the area has dramatically
increased and changed the nature of the local population.
Finally, I’d like to use Brooklyn as a case study of local change. Brooklyn’s population has changed
significantly over the years and this can most easily be seen in its economic activity. Tracing the
Brooklyn industries back from the current financial services companies, to manufacturing in the
1950s, to shipbuilding in the 1900s. we can map this onto average wages and therefore the type
and class of resident. And this has affected the population density too which has been steadily
increasing over the past 100 years from 1.5 million in 1900, through to 2 million in the middle of the
twentieth century, to the 2.3 million inhabitants today. In fact Brooklyn is suffering from considerable
overpopulation now. But this large population increase was due not to employment but the building
of the subway which linked Brooklyn to other areas of New York. Prior to this at the beginning of
the twentieth century the only wav of transportation was the Brooklyn Bridge. Another factor which
traditionally increases the desire for the middle classes to live in a particular place is the extent and
type of local heritage, especially for those people with young children. In Brooklyn this is evident in the
increase in population after the construction of Coney Island. The modern day equivalent of this is the
restoration of Prospect Park, which has brought more middle income families into the area.