9a – Fill in the gaps

From the following list, use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word:

acid (n) , battery (n) , breed (v) , carbon (n) , illuminate (v) , integer (n) , lustre (n) , matrix (n) , molecule (n) , prince (n) , stationary (adj)

1. The element _________________ is all around us, in the air we breathe, even in the pencils with which we write.

2. In the United Kingdom, the ‘_________________ of Wales’ is the official title of eldest son of the monarch.

3. In this exercise, just use _________________, and don’t bother with any fractions or decimal points.

4. The music was really quite boring and had no real __________________.

5. Two atoms of oxygen and an atom of hydrogen together produce one __________________ of water.

6. A great deal of research has shown that poverty, lack of education and unemployment can _________________ social unrest.

7. Astronomers’ work is becoming more difficult as the night sky is increasingly _________________ by electric street lighting from urban areas.

8. Until 400 years ago, it was believed that the Earth was _________________, and that the Sun moved around the Earth.

9. One of the biggest problems for electric cars is that the __________________ they use for power are rather heavy.

10. Car batteries also have to be handled with care as they often contain an _________________ which can burn holes in clothes or even cause injury.

11. The grid on the left of your handout is known as a square __________________, as the number of columns and the number of rows are the same.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.


9b – Choose the right word

In each of the sentences below, decide which word in bold is more suitable:

1. Most universities have a special fund / finance for students who have run out of money and need help.

2. The prediction that we will completely tire / exhaust our reserves of oil in the not too distant future seems now to be incorrect.

3. Because he lied to his colleagues and family about his girlfriend / mistress, the minister destroyed not only his marriage but also his career.

4. Because of the rise in the number of prisoners, the whole penal / punishment system will have to be changed.

5. After six weeks trapped in the embassy, the hostages were finally emancipated / liberated.

6. Sometimes a piece of music can evoke / provoke very strong memories and emotions.

7. The biggest issue on which the two parties’ policies divide / diverge is the amount of money to be spent on education.

8. In some countries, the police regularly use torture / torment to force prisoners to give them information.

9. The most successful students are probably those who have a strong integral / intrinsic interest in their subject, as opposed to those who simply want a degree.

10. In the 1970’s, Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich states accumulated / collected vast sums of money through the sale of oil.

9c – Finish the sentence

Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath:

1. She won the championship by a margin…

2. Examples of animals imported by man replacing the indigenous…

3. In 1685, an aristocrat by the name of the Duke…

4. Civil war may break out very quickly if different factions…

5. Plants can be subdivided…

6. When you write an essay, you must confine…

7. Because of the special apparatus…

8. From the Vatican in Rome, the Pope…

9. The organisation of the department is really quite amorphous,…

10. The Romans built a large number of castles or forts…

11. Because of their high price, some students are not averse…

a. …and so the people in it are free to work on what they like, when they like.

b. …required, higher fees are charged for science and technology courses.

c. …to stealing books from the library.

d. …yourself to giving relevant ideas and information only.

e. …of Monmouth led a rebellion against the English king.

f. …in a country start fighting each other.

g. …called ‘castra,’ which we now see in place names like Lancaster.

h. …species already living there can be seen in all countries.

i. …of only one point.

j. …has the power to influence the lives of millions of Catholics.

k. …into several different families.


9d – Word substitution

From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:

ambiguity (n) , annual (adj) , construe (v) , displace (v) , efficient (adj) , innate (adj) , material (n) , orbit (v) , residue (n) , reverberate (v) , suspend (v)

1. The yearly external examiners’ meeting is held at the end of every academic year to discuss the examination papers which the students have written.

2. He is a very pleasant colleague, and very proficient at his job.

3. The workers went on strike as they viewed the management’s plans as an attack on their job security.

4. Some psychologists think our language ability is intrinsic, while others think that we know nothing about language at birth.

5. Because of reports that the meat was not safe, all sales were halted until more tests could be carried out.

6. Aluminium is a very suitable substance for aircraft because it is light and strong.

7. The International Space Station circles the Earth about every 90 minutes.

8. The noise of the explosion echoed through the empty streets.

9. Most of the money was spent on salaries, with the remainder used for new equipment.

10. Some industry experts believe that the Internet will supplant television and all programmes will be viewed from a computer.

11. He lost a great deal of political support because his speeches were so full of uncertainty and anomalies.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

9e – Choose the best word

For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a, b or c.

1. There are still too many countries which regularly ____________________ their citizens’ human rights.
a. break
b. violate
c. breach

2. In very hot climates, a considerable amount of petrol ____________________ from car fuel tanks and into the atmosphere.
a. evaporates
b. dehydrates
c. dries

3. When writing a summary, try to ____________________ the main ideas into just a few short sentences.
a. condense
b. shrink
c. collapse

4. The chief _______________________ which many companies have today is not the property they own but rather the creativity and skills of their employees.
a. asset
b. benefit
c. liability

5. His health is so bad that it will be a _______________________ if he is alive next year.
a. wonder
b. miracle
c. marvel

6. When you hit a drum, the movement of the drum causes the air molecules to __________________, which we hear as sound.
a. reverberate
b. vibrate
c. shake

7. Although the research team are all somewhat _____________________ people, they work very well together and produce some very good ideas.
a. conventional
b. odd
c. bizarre

8. The professor __________________ several possible explanations for the rise in recorded crime.
a. numbered
b. enumerated
c. named

9. The supervisor was not __________________ concerned about the student asking for a week’s extension to finish his essay, but warned him that there would be no more extensions after that.
a. unduly
b. absolutely
c. highly

10. Please _____________________ two colour passport photographs to the application form.
a. link
b. attach
c. fix

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.


9f – Make a collocation

Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one
pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:

  • full , high , umbilical , frontiers , gained , low , drastic , voluntary , wide , rural , federal
  • of science , complement , work , areas , velocity , cord , government , momentum , action , morale , vocabulary

1. In the United States, the _________________ _________________ has overall responsibility for foreign affairs and defence.

2. The company was losing so much money that only _________________ _________________ by the management – including the dismissal of 15% of the employees – enabled it to survive.

3. Until very recently, most people lived and worked in _________________ _________________, whereas today most of us live in cities.

4. Young children need a stimulating environment so that they can develop the _________________ _________________ of intellectual and social skills.

5. Researchers work at the _________________ _________________ in order to increase our knowledge.

6. While walking in space, the astronauts are connected to the spacecraft by a long life-line, often referred to as the ‘_________________ _________________’.

7. After retiring, many people choose to do some type of _________________ _________________ even though they receive no pay for this.

8. Political change in Central Europe _________________ _________________ when President Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union.

9. All students will need a _________________ _________________ in order to understand the sources of information they have to use.

10. Policemen carrying _________________ _________________ rifles surrounded the building.

11. If soldiers are not paid on time, _________________ _________________ can set in, sometimes resulting in a revolution against the government.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.